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  • Poverty in Whitechapel

    I present herewith this for your perusal, discussion and thought. It may even raise questions.

    William Fishman, Senior Research Fellow & Tutor in Politics at Queen Mary College, spoke at a Lecture in 1978 for The 1978 Tower Hamlets Annual Local History Lecture at the Central Library, Bancroft Road, which an abridged article was based on in 1979, in the East London Record (no.2) 1979. Parts of that article from that lecture, from the East End News, 13th November 1888 reveals the following concerning Parish Guardian Statistics...

    The East End News reports near the end of the year (13 November, 1888) that the total known mean number of paupers in London in 1887-8 was 108,638 compared with 104,431 the year before. In East London at the beginning of December 1888 official pauper numbers parish by parish were:

    Whitechapel 1,503 (Indoor Poor)
    St. George's 1,164 (plus 333 Lunatics)
    Poplar 3,956 (2,192 Indoor and 1,764 Outdoor Poor)
    Mile End 1,842 (1,340 Indoor and 502 Outdoor Poor)


    This gives an indication, especially to those not aware of the conditions of the East End of London, the extent of the poverty. Please notice the amount of "lunatics" and the "outdoor poor".

    Charles Booth, said the following:-

    Based on the years 1887-1888, 35% of the total population of Tower Hamlets, i.e. 35% of 456,877 souls, lived on or below the margin of subsistence. Another 20% wavered on the brink and it was this overwhelming proportion of poverty that provided the qualifying image of the area as a 'city of dreadful night'.


    This then, the background for the women that walked the streets.

    Margaret Harkness - socialist, feminist and novelist wrote about life in and around Tower Hamlets 1888, and as Fisherman says..

    "Tower Hamlets is brought to life for us in a series of brilliant vignettes portrayed in her remarkable novels (written significantly under the pseudonym John Law): Out of Work (published 1888) and Captain Lobe: or In Darkest London (1889)."

    and further....

    Her revelation of the degradation of women is striking. In the predatory climate engendered by casual 'laissez-faire' women appeared to be the most vulnerable. The affliction of labour in constant competition for work bore heaviest on East End women. Observing a group of girls applying for work in a local factory Harkness notes:

    A more miserable set of girls it would be difficult to find anywhere. They had only just escaped the Board School, but many of them had faces wise with wickedness, and eyes out of which all traces of maidenhood had vanished ... "the universal adjective" fell from their lips as a term of endearment, whilst the foulest names were given to girls they did not like, also blows and kicks by way of emphasis.

    They were offered work at 5d. a day - 'enough to buy bread with'. As new recruits to the vast reservoir of the labourless, they had no alternative but to accept. 'It's no good to talk to the girls about combination, they're so down-trodden and mean-spirited. It's work, work, work with them from the time they get up till they go to bed, except on Sundays'. At the lowest level it could be an unrewarding struggle for life. As a child the girl would be 'mother' to a large ever-increasing brood, should her own be out charing or 'taking to the laundry' to augment her man's meagre income (if not already unemployed!). She faced continual hazards; possibly an incestuous attack by father or brother, a constant beating by drunken parent, perhaps the only relief by taking to the streets. Innocence always short-lived - here the story of man's inhumanity to woman is most blatant. Harkness reiterated that the overwhelming pressure was the need to eat. 'Virtue is easy enough when a woman has plenty to eat, and a character to keep, but it's quite different when a girl is starving'. Yet mutual aid, the poor helping the poor in adversity, was never absent, it is still endemic in East End life.

    They're good to one another, they are. You'd be surprised to see what they'll do to help a girl that's ill, and how they'll put themselves about to buy crape when a girl is dead and has to be buried.



    Harkness notes one lodging house where 'A clergyman found his way in one Sunday evening. He was stripped, in order that the men might see if he was a detective. Finding all his linen marked with the same name and nothing in his pockets, they kicked him out naked, advising him never to come there again unless he was plentifully supplied with soup tickets!'.

    And further, Harkness says...

    For the homeless 'armies of despairs' - and they were in their hundreds here - there were two legal alternatives for survival - a charitable institution, like the Salvation Army, or the ultimate humiliation conferred on both genuine unemployed and pauper alike - the hated Bastille - the workhouse.

    Here is an 1888 description of the Whitechapel workhouse, a model of its kind, recalling the clinical inhumanity of a labour camp.

    Ringing the workhouse bell, they enter into a forecourt of neat flower beds, closely shaven grass plots, smooth paths, and trees which had been pruned until their branches had reached the legitimate amount of foliage. The Bastille stretched further than the eye could see, and seemed a standing rebuke to its poverty-stricken surroundings, for it was clean ... not a spot on it, not a stain, nothing to show a trace of sympathy with the misery and sin of the people who lived in this neighbourhood.

    The Whitechapel Union is a model workhouse; that is to say it is the Poor Law Incarnate in stone and brickwork. The men are not allowed to smoke in it, not even when they are in their dotage; the young women never taste tea, and the old ones may not indulge in a cup during the long afternoons, only at half past six o'clock morning and night, when they receive a small hunch of bread with butter scraped over the surface, and a mug of meat beverage which is so dear to their hearts as well as their stomachs. The young people never go out, never see a visitor, and the old only get one holiday in the month. Then the aged paupers may be seen skipping like lambkins outside the doors of the Bastille, while they jabber to their friends and relatives. A little gruel morning and night, meat twice a week, that is the food of grown-up people, seasoned with hard work and prison discipline. Doubtless this Bastille offers no premium to idle and improvident habits, but what shall we say of the woman, or man, maimed by misfortune, who must come there or die in the street?


    This then, is a partial view we may miss when we think of Annie, Polly, Liz, Kate and Mary. For four of them DID die in the street. From something so horrible..on top of the everyday battle to survive.

    best wishes

    Phil
    Last edited by Phil Carter; 01-04-2010, 04:43 AM.
    Chelsea FC. TRUE BLUE. 💙


    Justice for the 96 = achieved
    Accountability? ....

  • #2
    Originally posted by Phil Carter View Post
    Charles Booth, said the following:-

    Based on the years 1887-1888, 35% of the total population of Tower Hamlets, i.e. 35% of 456,877 souls, lived on or below the margin of subsistence. Another 20% wavered on the brink and it was this overwhelming proportion of poverty that provided the qualifying image of the area as a 'city of dreadful night'.
    The Parliamentary Borough of Tower Hamlets

    Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union:
    - The Liberty of Norton Folgate
    - The Old Artillery Ground
    - The Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields
    - The Hamlet of Mile End New Town
    - The Parish of Holy Trinity ('Minories')
    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (portion within the County of Middlesex, -1889; the County of London, 1889-1965)
    - The Liberty of Her Majesty's Tower of London
    --- {The Liberty of the Tower}
    --- {The Precinct of Old Tower Without}
    --- {The Tower}
    - The Precinct of St. Katharine
    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (portion within the County of Middlesex, -1889; the County of London, 1889-1965)

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 74,462
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 73,518
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 39.20%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 60.80%

    Mile End Old Town Registration District / Poor Law Parish:
    - The Hamlet of Mile End Old Town

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 107,592
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 110,321
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 26.20%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 73.80%

    St. George in the East Registration District / Poor Law Parish:
    - The Parish of St. George in the East

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 45,795
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 47,578
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 48.80%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 51.20%

    Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union:
    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping
    - The Parish of St. Paul Shadwell
    - The Hamlet of Ratcliff
    - The Parish of St. Anne Limehouse

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 57,376
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 62,063
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 38.10%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 61.90%

    Poplar Registration District / Poor Law Union:
    - The Parish of St. Mary Stratford Bow
    - The Parish of Bromley St. Leonard
    - The Parish of All Saints Poplar

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 166,748
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 166,393
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 36.50%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 63.50%


    Total (Tower Hamlets):

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 451,973
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 459,873
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 35.95%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 64.05%


    The Parliamentary Borough of Shoreditch

    Shoreditch Registration District / Poor Law Parish:
    - The Parish of St. Leonard Shoreditch

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 124,009
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 121,161
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 40.20%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 59.80%


    The Parliamentary Borough of Bethnal Green

    Bethnal Green Registration District / Poor Law Parish:
    - The Parish of St. Matthew Bethnal Green

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 129,132
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 127,641
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 44.70%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 55.30%


    Total (London's 'East End'***):

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 705,114
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 708,675
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Below the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 38.00%
    - Percentage of Total Population Living Above the 'Line of Poverty' (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 62.00%

    *** The most likely composition of London's 'East End', in the 1880's/1890's.

    Other areas that could conceivably have been considered part of the 'East End', during that period:

    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Bishopsgate (City of London)
    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (portion within the City of London)
    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (portion within the City of London)
    - The Parish of St. John at Hackney (County of Middlesex)
    - The Parish of All Saints West Ham (County of Essex)

    ---------

    Assuming a more detailed perspective of the 'Whitechapel' area; …


    Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union - 1888 (Click to Enlarge in flickr)
    Underlying Aerial Imagery: Copyright Google Earth, 2007
    Overlying Plots, Labels and Color-Shadings: Copyright Colin C. Roberts, 2009

    Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union:

    - The Liberty of Norton Folgate (Green)
    - The Old Artillery Ground (Aqua)
    - The Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields (Blue)
    - The Hamlet of Mile End New Town (Orange)
    - The Parish of Holy Trinity ('Minories') (Yellow)
    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (portion within the County of Middlesex, -1889; the County of London, 1889-1965) (Red)
    - The Liberty of Her Majesty's Tower of London (Orange)
    --- {The Liberty of the Tower}
    --- {The Precinct of Old Tower Without}
    --- {The Tower}
    - The Precinct of St. Katharine (Blue)
    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (portion within the County of Middlesex, -1889; the County of London, 1889-1965) (Green)

    - Total Population (1891 Census): 74,462
    - Total Population (Charles Booth 1889 Estimate): 73,518

    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'A' ('vicious' (i.e. vice-ridden), 'semi-criminal'): 3.30%
    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'B' ('very poor'): 8.90%
    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'C' ('poor' - irregular income): 10.70%
    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'D' ('poor' - regular but inadequate income): 16.30%

    - Estimated Percentage; Below the 'Line of Poverty': 39.20%

    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'E' ('above the line of poverty' - regular 'standard' income): 43.30%
    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'F' ('highly skilled labour'): 11.30%
    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'G' ('lower middle-class'): 4.40%
    - Estimated Percentage; Class 'H' ('upper middle-class'): 1.80%

    - Estimated Percentage; Above the 'Line of Poverty': 60.80%

    Comment


    • #3
      Economic prostitution

      I was going to start a new thread for this Phil, but yours covers an area that I was hoping to cover.
      Most, if not all, of JtR’s victims are described as prostitutes, but is this strictly true? Yes, they sold themselves, but if the various descriptions are anything to go on, not on a full time basis. Perhaps, even now we are doing them a disservice, by using this description for them. Consider this; the average wage for a day’s work in a factory for a woman was five to ten pence per day (less than a modern 5p). In some factories the dangers were as high as in prostitution ie the Match factories. Given that morality disappears with poverty in a lot of cases, plus the fact that regular employment was a luxury, what choice would you make?
      Part time prostitution seems to have been an economic necessity for a lot of the women in the East End of London, as is seen in the lives of the victims. This, along with cheap alcohol completes the vicious circle.
      With the passing of the years, nothing much has changed. Look at the plight of modern workers in the sex industry – substitute drugs for alcohol, you still have the same vicious circle of degradation, poor education, lack of qualifications and opportunities.
      I can remember a series of articles in one of the tabloid newspapers in the 1980’s reporting on part time middle class prostitution, entered into to maintain living standards after job loss in the family. Yet the participants were not denigrated with epithets like whore or tart. Instead there was almost admiration of entrepreneurial spirit – a modern spirit of the Blitz.
      Under these circumstances, shouldn’t we too treat the victims with the same, if possibly misguided, respect?
      All the best
      Dave
      When you talk to god it's praying; when god talks to you its schizophrenia! - X-Files

      Comment


      • #4
        Hello Septic, Dave,

        Septic, Many thanks again for your excellent stats! I merely quoted the article I found on Fishman's lecture and found his usage of this in conjunction with the novelist Margaret Harkness 's observations very interesting.
        The stats you provide are in themselves very illuminating in this context too.
        Again, thank you.

        Dave,

        You raise many excellent points and what I personally found most sad, was the reaction to the new school leavers, from their own kind. The fight for survival at such a young age, leading them to live life as an adult right from the start with, if you will pardon any unintentional pun, the "kill or be killed" or "survival of the fittest" attitude.

        I see, I am sorry to say, a general attitude from the younger generation today towards the women of Whitchapel of the 1880's, as being one of ignorance, and "branding". You touch upon this yourself in your reply. Respect has, sadly, fallen much by the wayside in society in general, and respect for these unfortunate people from 1888 even less evident.
        The social differences between now and then are of course obvious, but as you so correctly point out, so are the comparisons.

        best wishes

        Phil
        Last edited by Phil Carter; 01-05-2010, 10:53 PM.
        Chelsea FC. TRUE BLUE. 💙


        Justice for the 96 = achieved
        Accountability? ....

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by Phil Carter View Post
          The stats you provide are in themselves very illuminating in this context too.
          Again, thank you.
          You are most welcome!

          More to follow, in the coming weeks!

          Originally posted by Phil Carter View Post
          And further, Harkness says...

          ...

          The Whitechapel Union is a model workhouse; that is to say it is the Poor Law Incarnate in stone and brickwork. ... The young people never go out, never see a visitor, and the old only get one holiday in the month. Then the aged paupers may be seen skipping like lambkins outside the doors of the Bastille, while they jabber to their friends and relatives.
          Well, according to M.J. Trow; able-bodied wards of the Whitechapel Poor Law Union, such as Robert Mann, were allowed to come-and-go as they damn well pleased!

          Comment


          • #6
            Hello Sepic,

            The complete article is here

            http://www.mernick.org.uk/thhol/towe1888.html

            best wishes

            Phil
            Chelsea FC. TRUE BLUE. 💙


            Justice for the 96 = achieved
            Accountability? ....

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by Phil Carter View Post
              Many Thanks!

              Originally posted by Septic Blue View Post
              Originally posted by Phil Carter View Post
              And further, Harkness says...

              ...

              The Whitechapel Union is a model workhouse; that is to say it is the Poor Law Incarnate in stone and brickwork. ... The young people never go out, never see a visitor, and the old only get one holiday in the month. Then the aged paupers may be seen skipping like lambkins outside the doors of the Bastille, while they jabber to their friends and relatives.
              Well, according to M.J. Trow; able-bodied wards of the Whitechapel Poor Law Union, such as Robert Mann, were allowed to come-and-go as they damn well pleased!
              But, who are we to believe?

              A contemporary novelist, whose socialist inclinations might have compelled her to exaggerate the horrors of workhouse life?

              Or a modern-day novelist, who would set 'Ripperology' back a couple of decades, by proposing a nearly lifelong ward of the Whitechapel Poor Law Union as a supposed 'suspect'; and then insult the ideals of honest research, by suggesting that this person could have come-and-gone from the Whitechapel Union Infirmary, whenever he wished to do so, in 1888, on the basis that Jack London 'done a bunk' from the Whitechapel Union Casual Ward, in 1902?

              Comment


              • #8
                Hello Septic,

                Fishman was the modern day person, his lectures from 1978. He quoted Harness, a (I believe) Victorian Novelist. As regards Mann?... No, I do not believe Mr.Mann was JTR. Not at all.

                best wishes

                Phil
                Chelsea FC. TRUE BLUE. 💙


                Justice for the 96 = achieved
                Accountability? ....

                Comment


                • #9
                  As part of my dissertation I did some research in to prostitution in the East End. It appears that the numbers of people put down as prostitiutes was high as it accounted for many women who used it as a last resort.
                  The workhouses were awful but it should be noted that by 1888 the workhouses had changed a lot from the 1834 guidelines. Scandals such as the Andover Scandal made people very aware of the issues of the workhouses and riots in the north of England in places like Bradford were enough to scare the governement in to making chnages to the Poor Laws so as to avoid revolution. The idea of the Principle of Less Eligibility was the corner stone of the Poor Law but was also the thing which people were quickest to protest about.
                  The Workhouse often adapted to suit the economic climate of the local area. It is interesting to note that they list outdoor reliefe poor. This was supposed to have ended, after the 1834 Poor Law act no one was eligable for outdoor relief, and yet here it is. The Casual Wards of many of the city workshouses which had been intended for vagrants were now used in a very different kind of way. It is also important to note that the London Unions were unlike any other Poor Law Unions due to their immense size.
                  That many women suppliamented family incomes with prostitution is clear. In the case of the C5 I would say that only Stride and Kelly appear to have been consistant prostitutes. Although what Kelly did for the 18 month she was with Barnett seems to be in doubt. Eddowes went hop picking and cleaning. Nichols had been in service and Chapman had been hawking. That they all turned to prostitution due to their economic situation is unquestionable.
                  Can I suggest anyone interested in Workhouses look at this site.
                  www.workhouses.org.
                  There is even a picture of Banbridge, Co. Down where my Great Grandmother was born.
                  In order to know virtue, we must first aquaint ourselves with vice!

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Click image for larger version

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                    Charles Booth's "Descriptive Map of London Poverty", 1887-1889

                    *** Click Image to View in Harvard University Library – Image Delivery Service ***


                    Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union - Charles Booth's "Descriptive Map of London Poverty", 1887-1889 (Click to Enlarge in flickr)

                    The following components of the Whitechapel Registration District do not appear in the above image, as they are depicted on a separate map-sheet, in Charles Booth's published survey of 1889-1891:

                    - A Minor Portion of the Liberty of Her Majesty's Tower of London
                    - A Major Portion of the Precinct of St. Katharine
                    - A Significant Portion of the Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (portion within the County of Middlesex, -1889; County of London, 1889-1965)

                    Click image for larger version

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                    Charles Booth's "Map Shewing Degrees of Poverty in London", 1889-1891

                    *** Click Image to View in Harvard University Library – Image Delivery Service ***


                    A Portion of Charles Booth's "'Map Shewing Degrees of Poverty in London': In Areas with About 30,000 Inhabitants in Each; Compiled from Information Collected in 1889-1890" (My Color-Shadings) (Includes the Entirety of the Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union)

                    Estimated Percentage of Inhabitants that Lived Below Booth's 'Line of Poverty'; i.e. "In Poverty":

                    - 71 (Purple): 32.53%
                    - 72 (Blue): 49.07%
                    - 73 (Blue): 46.50%
                    - 74 (Blue): 49.35%
                    - 76 (Pink): 24.59%

                    ---------

                    In Greater Detail (*** Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union; unless otherwise noted ***):


                    71 (Purple): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Blocks 'A', 'B' and 'E' (Portion, Which Lay West of Back Church Lane / Well Close Square)

                    - The Liberty of Norton Folgate
                    - The Old Artillery Ground
                    - The Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields (Portion, Which Lay West of Commercial Street)
                    - The Parish of Holy Trinity ('Minories')
                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay West of Commercial Street; South of Commercial Road)
                    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay North of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping* (Portion, Which Lay North of Upper East Smithfield)

                    * Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    Class 'A': 719 / 2.14%
                    Class 'B': 2,644 / 7.88%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 7,555 / 22.51%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 10,918 / 32.53%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 20,799 / 61.98%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,843 / 5.49%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 22,642 / 67.47%

                    Total: 33,560 / 100.00%


                    72 (Blue): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'C'

                    - The Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields (Portion, Which Lay East of Commercial Street)
                    - The Hamlet of Mile End New Town
                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay East of Commercial Street; North of Whitechapel High Street / Whitechapel Road)

                    Class 'A': 1,691 / 4.98%
                    Class 'B': 3,720 / 10.95%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 11,261 / 33.15%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 16,672 / 49.07%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 15,556 / 45.79%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,745 / 5.14%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 17,301 / 50.93%

                    Total: 33,973 / 100.00%


                    73 (Blue): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Blocks 'D' and 'E' (Portion, Which Lay East of Back Church Lane / Well Close Square)

                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Whitechapel High Street / Whitechapel Road; North of Commercial Road; West of Turner Street)
                    - The Hamlet of Mile End Old Town (Portion, Which Lay West of Turner Street)
                    - The Parish of St. George in the East (Portion, Which Lay North of Pennington Street; West of Cannon Street Road)

                    Class 'A': 638 / 1.82%
                    Class 'B': 4,222 / 12.07%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 11,411 / 32.61%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 16,271 / 46.50%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 16,783 / 47.97%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,935 / 5.53%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 18,718 / 53.50%

                    Total: 34,989 / 100.00%


                    74 (Blue): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Blocks 'F' and 'H'

                    - The Liberty of Her Majesty's Tower of London
                    --- {The Liberty of the Tower}
                    --- {The Precinct of Old Tower Without}
                    --- {The Tower}
                    - The Precinct of St. Katharine
                    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping* (Portion, Which Lay South of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. George in the East** (Portion, Which Lay South of Pennington Street; and Portion, Which Lay North of Pennington Street; East of Cannon Street Road; West of Sutton Street East)
                    - The Parish of St. Paul Shadwell* (Portion, Which Lay South of West Gardens / Shadwell New Basin and Portion, Which Lay North of West Gardens / Shadwell New Basin; West of King David Lane)

                    * Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    ** St. George in the East Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 348 / 1.20%
                    Class 'B': 5,179 / 17.86%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 8,783 / 30.29%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 14,310 / 49.35%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 13,576 / 46.82%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,113 / 3.84%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 14,689 / 50.65%

                    Total: 28,999 / 100.00%


                    76 (Pink): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Blocks 'G' and 'J'

                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Whitechapel Road; North of Commercial Road; East of Turner Street)
                    - The Hamlet of Mile End Old Town* (Portion, Which Lay South of Mile End Road; East of Turner Street; West of Jubilee Street and Portion, Which Lay South of Mile End Road; Southwest of Stepney Green; North of Oxford Street; East of Jubilee Street)

                    * Mile End Old Town Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 248 / 0.79%
                    Class 'B': 1,412 / 4.50%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 6,059 / 19.31%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 7,719 / 24.59%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 21,335 / 67.98%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 2,331 / 7.43%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 23,666 / 75.41%

                    Total: 31,385 / 100.00%

                    ---------

                    Incidentally, the specific 'crop' of Charles Booth's "'Map Shewing Degrees of Poverty in London': In Areas with About 30,000 Inhabitants in Each; Compiled from Information Collected in 1889-1890" depicted above …

                    … is based entirely on my estimation of the region that was worthy of the distinction … 'local' …, in 1888, with respect to this series of murders.

                    I have defined the murder 'locale' in the following terms: 'Immediate Vicinity'; 'General Vicinity'; and 'Broad Vicinity' …


                    Murder 'Locale' - Immediate Vicinity; General Vicinity; Broad Vicinity (Click to Enlarge in flickr)
                    Underlying Aerial Imagery: Copyright Google Earth, 2007
                    Overlying Plots, Labels and Color-Shadings: Copyright Colin C. Roberts, 2009

                    … based, in part, on my estimations of 'Immediate Vicinity' and 'General Vicinity'.


                    Murder 'Locale' - Immediate Vicinity; General Vicinity (Click to Enlarge in flickr)
                    Underlying Aerial Imagery: Copyright Google Earth, 2007
                    Overlying Plots, Labels and Color-Shadings: Copyright Colin C. Roberts, 2009

                    Red: Greatest Deviation (Polly Nichols) 0.00 - 1.38 Standard Deviations
                    - Radius: 843.50 Yards
                    - Area: 0.72 Square-Miles
                    - Expectation of Distribution Accumulation: 77.30%*

                    * Given a perception of late November 1888 that this series of murders would continue ad infinitum; the expectation should have been that 77.30% would occur within the specified circular area, i.e. within 1.38 Standard Deviations of the murder-site Mean-Center (green dot).

                    This can be loosely interpreted to mean that in late November 1888, the perceived probability of the impending subsequent murder occurring within this circular area, should have been 77.30%.

                    Red/Aqua: 0.00% - 90.00% Stipulated Expectation of Distribution Accumulation*
                    - 0.00 - 2.02 Standard Deviations
                    - Radius: 1,234.67 Yards
                    - Area: 1.55 Square-Miles

                    * Given a perception of late November 1888 that this series of murders would continue ad infinitum; the expectation should have been that 90.00% would occur within the specified circular area, i.e. within 2.02 Standard Deviations of the murder-site Mean-Center (green dot).

                    This can be loosely interpreted to mean that in late November 1888, the perceived probability of the impending subsequent murder occurring within this circular area, should have been 90.00%.

                    The 'Broad Vicinity' (Purple) will be explained, as my "Informal Presentation of Geo-Spatial Analysis Project" progresses.

                    ---------

                    Booth's delineations of socio-economic 'class' …

                    "In Poverty":
                    Class 'A': "Vicious" (i.e. vice-ridden); "Semi-Criminal"
                    Class 'B': "Very Poor"
                    Class 'C': "Poor" - Irregular Income
                    Class 'D': "Poor" - Regular but Inadequate Income

                    "In Comfort":
                    Class 'E': "Above the 'Line of Poverty'" - Regular "Standard" Income
                    Class 'F': "Highly Skilled Labour"
                    Class 'G': "Lower Middle-Class"
                    Class 'H': "Upper Middle-Class"


                    An Interpretation of a Portion of Charles Booth's "'Map Shewing Degrees of Poverty in London': In Areas with About 30,000 Inhabitants in Each; Compiled from Information Collected in 1889-1890" (Includes the Entirety of the Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union) (Click to Enlarge in flickr)
                    Underlying Aerial Imagery: Copyright Google Earth, 2007
                    Overlying Plots, Labels and Color-Shadings: Copyright Colin C. Roberts, 2009

                    Estimated Percentage of Inhabitants that Lived Below Booth's 'Line of Poverty'; i.e. "In Poverty":

                    Left-to-Right / Top-to-Bottom ...

                    - 71c (Pink): 24.13%
                    - 72 (Blue): 49.07%
                    - 73a (Purple): 34.63%
                    - 76a (Pink): 26.21%
                    - 71a (Light Blue): 42.70%
                    - 71b (Purple): 35.72%
                    - 73b (Navy): 54.57%
                    - 74c (Blue): 47.91%
                    - 74a (Purple): 35.00%
                    - 74b (Navy): 57.71%

                    ---------

                    In Greater Detail (*** Whitechapel Registration District / Poor Law Union; unless otherwise noted ***):


                    71c (Pink): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'A'

                    - The Liberty of Norton Folgate
                    - The Old Artillery Ground
                    - The Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields (Portion, Which Lay West of Commercial Street)
                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay West of Commercial Street; North of Whitechapel High Street)

                    Class 'A': 425 / 2.55%
                    Class 'B': 613 / 3.67%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 2,991 / 17.92%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 4,029 / 24.13%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 11,774 / 70.53%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 891 / 5.34%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 12,665 / 75.87%

                    Total: 16,694 / 100.00%

                    "Many Jews here, mostly tailors, general dealers, boot makers, or small tradesmen. Large number of cigar makers, cabinet makers, and other artisans, also many of the labouring class, hawkers, and loafers. Houses often very crowded and highly rented."


                    72 (Blue): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'C'

                    - The Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields (Portion, Which Lay East of Commercial Street)
                    - The Hamlet of Mile End New Town
                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay East of Commercial Street; North of Whitechapel High Street / Whitechapel Road)

                    Class 'A': 1,691 / 4.98%
                    Class 'B': 3,720 / 10.95%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 11,261 / 33.15%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 16,672 / 49.07%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 15,556 / 45.79%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,745 / 5.14%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 17,301 / 50.93%

                    Total: 33,973 / 100.00%

                    "Large densely-populated block, … A large proportion of inhabitants are Jews engaged as tailors and cigar makers. Two groups of houses inhabited by many of the lowest class."

                    "Two groups of houses …", being almost certainly in reference to the rookeries of Great Pearl Street and Flower & Dean Street, in the Parish of Christ Church Spitalfields.


                    73a (Purple): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'D'

                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Whitechapel High Street / Whitechapel Road; North of Commercial Road; West of Turner Street)
                    - The Hamlet of Mile End Old Town* (Portion, Which Lay West of Turner Street)

                    * Mile End Old Town Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 148 / 1.05%
                    Class 'B': 659 / 4.65%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 4,096 / 28.93%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 4,903 / 34.63%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 7,714 / 54.49%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,540 / 10.88%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 9,254 / 65.37%

                    Total: 14,157 / 100.00%

                    "Chief occupations of this block are tailoring and cigar making. There are also many artisans, workers in furs and skins, bootmakers, hawkers, and labourers mostly of the casual order. Great number of Jews here, some comfortable, but many abjectly poor."


                    76a(Pink): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'G'

                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Whitechapel Road; North of Commercial Road; East of Turner Street)
                    - The Hamlet of Mile End Old Town* (Portion, Which Lay South of Mile End Road; East of Turner Street; West of Jubilee Street)

                    * Mile End Old Town Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 224 / 1.04%
                    Class 'B': 1,073 / 5.00%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 4,328 / 20.17%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 5,625 / 26.21%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 14,052 / 65.49%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,781 / 8.30%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 15,833 / 73.79%

                    Total: 21,458 / 100.00%

                    "Densely crowded block round the London Hospital. Two-thirds of the inhabitants are in steady work, and their weekly wages, if small, are regular. A certain amount of prostitution and its accompanying evils in some of the streets."


                    76b (Pink)*: Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'J'

                    - The Hamlet of Mile End Old Town** (Portion, Which Lay South of Mile End Road; Southwest of Stepney Green; North of Oxford Street; East of Jubilee Street)

                    * Off Right Edge of the Above Image

                    ** Mile End Old Town Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 24 / 0.24%
                    Class 'B': 339 / 3.41%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 1,731 / 17.44%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 2,094 / 21.09%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 7,283 / 73.37%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 550 / 5.54%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 7,833 / 78.91%

                    Total: 9,927 / 100.00%

                    "The inhabitants of this block mainly belong to the ordinary working class; many of them are poor, and some in distress. The upper classes are shopkeepers and publicans. Houses are small, rarely exceeding six rooms, generally accommodating two families."


                    71a (Light Blue): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'B'

                    - The Parish of Holy Trinity ('Minories')
                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Whitechapel High Street; West of Leman Street / Dock Street)
                    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay North of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping* (Portion, Which Lay North of Upper East Smithfield; West of Dock Street)

                    * Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    Class 'A': 719 / 2.14%
                    Class 'B': 2,644 / 7.88%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 7,555 / 22.51%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 10,918 / 32.53%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 20,799 / 61.98%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,843 / 5.49%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 22,642 / 67.47%

                    Total: 33,560 / 100.00%

                    "Several blocks of models here, one owned by the Peabody trustees, containing a decent working class, though some rather poor. A large number of tailors, many of them being Jews; some employing several hands, others extremely poor. A few very bad spots."


                    71b (Purple): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'E' (Portion, Which Lay West of Back Church Lane / Well Close Square)

                    - The Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Commercial Road; East of Leman Street / Dock Street)
                    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping* (Portion, Which Lay North of Upper East Smithfield / Pennington Street; East of Dock Street)

                    * Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    Class 'A': 719 / 2.14%
                    Class 'B': 2,644 / 7.88%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 7,555 / 22.51%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 10,918 / 32.53%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 20,799 / 61.98%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 1,843 / 5.49%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 22,642 / 67.47%

                    Total: 33,560 / 100.00%

                    "Polish Jews crowded in many of the houses, generally engaged with their families in some branch of the tailoring trade, which is the main occupation of this district. Number of bootmakers, general dealers, and cigar makers."


                    73b (Navy): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'E' (Portion, Which Lay East of Back Church Lane / Well Close Square)

                    - The Parish of St. George in the East (Portion, Which Lay North of Pennington Street; West of Cannon Street Road)

                    Class 'A': 490 / 2.35%
                    Class 'B': 3,563 / 17.10%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 7,315 / 35.11%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 11,368 / 54.57%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 9,069 / 43.53%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 395 / 1.90%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 9,464 / 45.43%

                    Total: 20,832 / 100.00%

                    "Great deal of poverty in this district mixed with many queer characters. Part north of Cable Street is largely inhabited by Jews and Germans, tailors and sugar-bakers, etc., while the south mainly consists of a rather low waterside labouring population."


                    74c (Blue): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'H'

                    - The Parish of St. George in the East* (Portion, Which Lay North of Pennington Street; East of Cannon Street Road; West of Sutton Street East)
                    - The Parish of St. Paul Shadwell** (Portion, Which Lay North of West Gardens / Shadwell New Basin; West of King David Lane)

                    * St. George in the East Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    ** Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    Class 'A': 219 / 1.10%
                    Class 'B': 3,511 / 17.64%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 5,805 / 29.17%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 9,535 / 47.91%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 9,667 / 48.58%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 699 / 3.51%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 10,366 / 52.09%

                    Total: 19,901 / 100.00%

                    "Large thickly-populated block. Houses are generally small, often containing only two rooms, with a family in each room. Inhabitants of the working class, tailors (often Jews), bootmakers, carmen, labourers, cigar makers, shopmen, and dock employees. Many women work."


                    74a (Purple): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'F' (Portion, Which Lay West of Tobacco Dock / Wapping Basin)

                    - The Liberty of Her Majesty's Tower of London
                    --- {The Liberty of the Tower}
                    --- {The Precinct of Old Tower Without}
                    --- {The Tower}
                    - The Precinct of St. Katharine
                    - The Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate (Portion Within the County of Middlesex) (Portion, Which Lay South of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping* (Portion, Which Lay South of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. George in the East** (Portion, Which Lay South of Pennington Street; and Portion, Which Lay North of Pennington Street; East of Cannon Street Road; West of Sutton Street East)

                    * Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    ** St. George in the East Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 19 / 0.91%
                    Class 'B': 159 / 7.59%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 555 / 26.50%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 733 / 35.00%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 1,189 / 56.78%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 172 / 8.21%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 1,361 / 65.00%

                    Total: 2,094 / 100.00%

                    "One small block of models belonging to a large carman and contractor, whose employees live here. With the exception of a few shopkeepers, the inhabitants are generally a waterside population, stevedores, lightermen, ship's clerks, and dock labourers."


                    74b (Navy): Tower Hamlets School Board Division, Block 'F' (Portion, Which Lay East of Tobacco Dock / Wapping Basin)

                    - The Parish of St. John of Wapping* (Portion, Which Lay South of Upper East Smithfield)
                    - The Parish of St. George in the East** (Portion, Which Lay South of Pennington Street; and Portion, Which Lay North of Pennington Street; East of Cannon Street Road; West of Sutton Street East)
                    - The Parish of St. Paul Shadwell* (Portion, Which Lay South of West Gardens / Shadwell New Basin and Portion, Which Lay North of West Gardens / Shadwell New Basin; West of King David Lane)

                    * Stepney Registration District / Poor Law Union

                    ** St. George in the East Registration District / Poor Law Parish

                    Class 'A': 110 / 1.57%
                    Class 'B': 1,509 / 21.54%
                    Classes 'C' & 'D': 2,423 / 34.59%

                    Sub-Total (Below the 'Line of Poverty'): 4,042 / 57.71%

                    Classes 'E' & 'F': 2,720 / 38.83%
                    Classes 'G' & 'H': 242 / 3.46%

                    Sub-Total (Above the 'Line of Poverty'): 2,962 / 42.29%

                    Total: 7,004 / 100.00%

                    "This is quite a waterside block, lying between London Docks and the Thames. Many warehouses interspersed among the houses, in which live a large number of dock employees of all grades, and many in the carrying trades."

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Colin,

                      A most magnificent set of Booth's reconstructions!! THANK YOU!

                      This really does give the correct feeling of dispair and also of possibility.
                      The areas around Commercial St, the inner areas of Dorset, Flower and Dean St, The more "urban" areas..all within a stone's throw of each other.
                      I think I am correct in saying that the area of Shoreditch, Haggerston and Hoxton, even Bethnal Green, also had these smaller, confined pockets of poor. Hoxton and Haggerston especially I believe. Please correct me if I am mistaken.
                      These diagrams and maps are quite amazing...but the breakdown of the figures, down in their hundreds in some areas, are amazingly revealing.
                      Your own reconstruction of the poverty areas are truly great. This must be regarded, in all it's entirety, as an essential piece of factual knowledge regarding the Whitechapel murders. Thank you, again!

                      best wishes

                      Phil
                      Last edited by Phil Carter; 01-10-2010, 08:08 PM.
                      Chelsea FC. TRUE BLUE. 💙


                      Justice for the 96 = achieved
                      Accountability? ....

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Septic Blue, your posts on the socio economic conditions are spectacular, and I ( and future students of the case ) thank you. Respectfully Dave
                        We are all born cute as a button and dumb as rocks. We grow out of cute fast!

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Fabulous work!! I wish I knew you when I was at uni, these would have been very helpful.
                          As to the idea of pockets of poverty this is very true of many areas isn't it. Even in villages there are often streets that are poorer. If you look at the evolution of small towns you can find streets which suggest the poorer past, eg Union Street, Corporation Street even in one near here Bag Bargain Lane!
                          In order to know virtue, we must first aquaint ourselves with vice!

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by Phil Carter View Post
                            Hello Sepic,

                            The complete article is here

                            http://www.mernick.org.uk/thhol/towe1888.html

                            best wishes

                            Phil
                            Brilliant- and really shocking stuff here - well nothing that we didn't know- but the attitude is a tad too today's Daily Mail for me
                            'Would you like to see my African curiosities?'

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Hello Suzi,

                              Yes, the modernistic writing performance is a little too shaded that way, I agree. But yes, it is shocking stuff. The social background, I believe, becomes all the more shocking as time goes by.

                              best wishes

                              Phil
                              Chelsea FC. TRUE BLUE. 💙


                              Justice for the 96 = achieved
                              Accountability? ....

                              Comment

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