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Frederick Gehringer: Barrow Lender, Lodging House Keeper and Crime Lord?

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  • #31
    Seanr, what do you make of this?...

    From June 1882...

    Kate Dacey sounds familiar

    This is Frederick Geringer trying to pass off as the husband of Kate...

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    "Great minds, don't think alike"


    • #32
      Ah yes, I recall now...


      Kate Dacey, the "smart, little Irishwoman" who stabbed 2 men on the street...

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      Fascinating rogue of a woman by the sound of it.

      "Great minds, don't think alike"


      • #33
        Frederick Gheringer's faux wife...

        Kate Gheringer/Kate Dacey/Catherine Dacey/Kate Wayland

        of 31 Great Pearl Street

        In the 1901 census, Kate is living with Frederick Gheringer as his "servant."

        And yet, also in 1901, we have...

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        Last edited by The Rookie Detective; 02-25-2024, 12:26 PM.
        "Great minds, don't think alike"


        • #34
          I am not sure if you're aware of this, but Frederick Gehringer used to live in Mitre Street, next to Mitre Square.

          In 1884, Frederick Gehringer lived at 15 Mitre Street, Aldgate.

          Aged 30 and already a Widower, he married his 2nd wife (?) on the 19th August 1884; a woman called Matilda Neall

          Frederick's occupation in 1884 is listed as a Plumber.

          So in 1884, we have him directly linked to within yards of the subsequent murder site of Eddowes in 1888.

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          Interesting connection and a lavish signature to top things off.

          "Great minds, don't think alike"


          • #35
            There are some interesting data references regarding Frederick Gehringer, that may be of relevance to the context of this thread...

            In April 1887; when his son Frederick William Gehringer was Baptized, the family was living at 11 Little Pearl Street, Spitalfields

            Frederick Gehringer's occupation is listed as "Lodging House Keeper"

            However, in January 1889, when his daughter; Martha Gehringer was Baptized, and the family still living at 11 Pearl Street, Frederick is now listed as a "House Decorator."

            This suggests that Gehringer relinquished his role as a Lodging House Keeper at some point between April 1887 to January 1889, but crucially the family was still residing at the same address at 11 Little Pearl Street.

            By the time of the 1891 census, the family has moved to 31 Great Pearl Street.

            The move of residence was possibly due to the expansion of his family unit

            All of this data doesn't shout of a local king-pin gangster-type figure...but it's hard to tell for sure.

            He did end up living with Kate Dacey, who was prone to bouts of violence and she wasn't scared of using a knife.

            How did he end up with a character like her?

            There is one further interesting little nugget...

            Based on his daughter's birth on the 13th of December 1888, his wife Matilda would have been in her 2nd and 3rd trimester during the "Autumn of Terror."

            I have noticed one slightly odd piece of data hidden in plain sight, written on his daughter's baptism record.

            With Frederick's proven direct link to 15 Mitre Street in 1884, it did make me wonder...

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            Why is the name "GULL" written here?

            Coincidences, coincidences.

            "Great minds, don't think alike"


            • #36
              Great finds, Rookie. I was previously unaware of his connection to Mitre Street and the Aldgate area just past the pump. Nor was I familiar with Kate Dacey.

              All of this data doesn't shout of a local king-pin gangster-type figure...but it's hard to tell for sure.
              It's a real question of how much the lodging house keepers were either directly involved in crime or simply profitted from proceeds in their properties and in their other business endeavours. And how much policing turned a blind eye to some kinds of crime, there appears to have been a thriving gambling scene on Saturday nights in Spitalfields and Aldgate area.

              Frederick Gehringer the elder (father of the one who lived in Great Pearl Street and the landlord of the City of Norwich) has a better claim to being involved in crime. Inn that stolen goods were found on his property in the 1860s and his wife (the step-mother of the younger Gehringer) almost certainly perjured herself to try to provide an alibi to the accused.
              I don't think Sgt Thick believe what the same Emma Gehringer said to him when he spoke to her about the Whitechapel Murders, and I don't believe her either. She implausibly claimed that no-one but her regulars visited the City of Norwich. I now know that she said this despite having just started hosting boxing events in the City of Norwich with Ching Hook from late August 1888, which surely would have attracted a larger and different crowd from the usual.

              The City of Norwich had boasted a music licence in the 1850s - 60s and the boxing ring was described as 'airy', all of which raise questions around just how large the City of Norwich actually was inside. They also boasted a billiard table in a back room.

              I have some clippings which do seem to link the City of Norwich to brothels during the 1850s. Until I think 1862, Angel Alley had been full of such bawdy houses. I haven't shared these because they involve child prostitution.

              The brothels of Angel Alley appear to have been cleaned up in the 1860s with a reference to a notorious pub being closed down. The City of Norwich was closed for a couple of years after the stolen good case as Gehringher lost his license. He somehow managed to support the family for a couple of years, and regained his licence without objection from the police.
              It turns out the City of Norwich was not the notorious pub referred to and there was a worse one. With stolen goods and links to exploitative prostitution at the City, you'd have to wonder just how bad the other notorious pub was. And how much a blind eye to certain forms of criminal activity was just a part of the culture. Perhaps Emma Gehringer was in no way notable in misleading the law.

              Not directly related, but I'm pretty sure the boxer Pedlar Palmer was involved in protection rackets with the local pubs.

              Frederick Gehringer the younger definitely didn't give up keeping lodging house by 1889. He was charged with over-crowding in 1902, so we know he was still running houses. And the visit by George Duckworth where Gehringher was described as owning the area around Pearl Street was in 1898.​


              • #37
                Originally posted by The Rookie Detective View Post

                Was Hutchinson the hired hand of Crossingham who was paid to murder MJK on McCarthy's turf?

                And by describing a Pugilist as the man he saw with MJK, was he trying to pin the blame on those involved with the illegal fighting scene and attempt to frame McCarthy?

                Could Hutchinson have worked for Crossingham?

                Could the City of Essex be linked to Crossingham?

                Was MJK butchered on McCarthy's turf by a rival?

                McCarthy and Crossingham weren't necessarily rivals, but they did own Dorset Street between them.
                Interesting, why do you think Astrakhan man sounds like a pugilist? - Both the Gehringer families and the McCarthys were involved in the boxing scene by November 1888.

                I'm under the impression Crossingham and McCarthy were on relatively good terms with each other.


                • #38
                  I don't make as much of Sgt Thick testifying on behalf of McCarthy as others do. A H Division officer appeared on behalf of Pedlar Palmer for his manslaughter trial, testifying that the boxer was not a violent man.
                  The testifying officer cannot have been familar with Palmer's convictions, as he had quite the string of violent offences - and those are just the ones where someone was willing to prosecute.

                  That's another story for a different thread though.


                  • #39
                    Originally posted by The Rookie Detective View Post
                    I have noticed one slightly odd piece of data hidden in plain sight, written on his daughter's baptism record.

                    With Frederick's proven direct link to 15 Mitre Street in 1884, it did make me wonder...

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                    Why is the name "GULL" written here?

                    Coincidences, coincidences.

                    You are asking about the crossed out name in the fourth column?

                    In my opinion, the registrar misheard Gehringer, started writing Gallagher or similar, realized his mistake and started again with the correct name.


                    • #40
                      Some excellent posts and responses on this thread so far.

                      Seanr, I am glad you cleared up the facts in your post #9

                      Frederick Adam Gehringer senior was the City of Norwich pub landlord died on New Year's Day 1888, aged 64

                      His son Frederick Adam Gerhinger was the one who died in 1909, aged 57 (born 1853)

                      What's interesting about Frederick Gehringer (junior) is that he grew up at 61 Wentworth Street (City of Norwich Pub)

                      His father took over the pub from the Mayers sometime between 1853-1855.

                      Frederick was born in 1853

                      So, a bit more about his life...

                      On September 19th, 1875, aged 22, and listed as a "Shipping Agent," he married a woman called Sarah Eliza Davis, whose father William Davis was a "Lodging Housekeeper" in Osborn Place, just around the corner from the City of Norwich Pub in Wentworth Street

                      However, Sarah Gehringer (nee Davis) died in early-mid 1880, aged 21.

                      I have not found any evidence thus far that they had children, but this is not confirmed.

                      This made Frederick a Widower by the age of 26.

                      He then married his 2nd wife; Matilda Neall (post #34) on August 19th, 1884, aged 30.
                      His status as a Plumber is quite interesting because it ties in with his later "House Decorator"

                      It seems he became a domestic Handyman, who helped refurbish properties.

                      However, his 2nd wife then dies in 1896.

                      He is a Widower for the 2nd time.

                      He then shacks up with Kate Dacey and they live together at 31 Great Pearl Street.

                      However, they DO eventually get married, because on the 2nd May 1902 they finally tie the knot. He is listed as a "Job Master"
                      This is interesting written reference to a man who appears to have considered himself as a Jack of all trades (hope you don't mind me giving the trade name)

                      The slight anomaly is that on his wedding to Kate Dacey, his middle name is now "John" and not "Adam"
                      He has seemingly removed his father's name and replaced it with John, for reasons known only to him.

                      But it's not the first time that he has done this, because the only Frederick Gehringer born in the correct area, in 1853, had the middle name "Phillip"

                      So his birth name was Frederick Phillip Gehringer
                      Then he changed his middle name to "Adam" (his father's name)
                      But then by the time he married his 3rd wife, he had changed it again, to John

                      Phillip, Adam and John...but it IS the same Frederick Gehringer

                      Now, here's where it gets interesting...

                      Frederick grew up and lived in Wentworth Street

                      He is also linked to George Street, as per the excellent posts already presented by Seanr

                      He married Sarah Davis, whose surname while very common, is also the name associated with MJK.

                      The Gerhinger's were German Jews and had links to the boxing underworld, along with McCarthy and his associates.

                      Shortly after his wife Sarah died, he went and boarded at 37 Flower and Dean Street, next door to 35 Flower and Dean Street. This is evidenced in the 1881 census.

                      To not make this particular post too long, I will continue in my next post...


                      Last edited by The Rookie Detective; 02-28-2024, 11:46 AM.
                      "Great minds, don't think alike"


                      • #41
                        The Gerhinger family... A brief timeline part 1... (1848 -1861)

                        1848 - German "Master Baker" Friedrich Gehringer and his wife Louisa (nee Buhler) are living at 33 Brick Lane, Spitalfields; having moved from Wurttemburg, Germany.
                        33 Brick Lane was located close to the junction with Heneage Street, virtually opposite the back of the Christchurch, Spitalfields.

                        1848 - Birth of John Frederick Gehringer. He goes on to marry Charlotte Miller on 08/09/1872. John died on 11/08/1880 aged 32.

                        1849 - Birth of Louisa Catherine Gehringer (baptized 02/12/1849) Louisa goes on to marry a man named Robert Holiss on 13/07/1879

                        1851 - Family still living at 33 Brick Lane (Census)

                        1851 - Birth of Catherine Louisa Gehringer. Catherine goes on to marry John Nafzger on 21/07/1873, and then Harry Lockman on 27/08/1883, just 5 months after John Nafzger dies on 17/03/1883. John Nafzger's name appears on the directory in 1884 despite him having been deceased and Catherine having remarried.

                        1853 - Birth of Frederick Philip Gehringer (Baptized 06/03/1853 in Spitalfields Christchurch) Frederick goes on to marry Sarah Davis, Matilda Neall, and Kate Dacey

                        1853-1855 - Family moves from 33 Brick Lane, to 61 Wentworth Street, to take over the City of Norwich Tavern.

                        1857 - Birth of their daughter Willemina Christiana Gehringer (Baptized 25/01/1857). She goes on to marry a painter named Joseph Fowler who's living around the corner in Osborn Street on 11/11/1878.
                        Willemina died unexpectedly from complications during childbirth in July 1880 at the age of 22; and is buried along with her stillborn child.

                        1858 - Louisa Gehringer, Matriarch of the family dies in February 1858, leaving her widowed husband with 5 children (John, Louisa, Catherine, Frederick, Willemina)

                        ​1858 - Frederick Gehringer (senior) marries his 2nd wife just a few months after his 1st wife's death, to a woman from Essex named, Anna Emma Paisey, who becomes more commonly known as Emma Gehringer; Frederick Philip Gehringer's stepmother.

                        1861 - The family are living at 61 Wentworth Street; the City of Norwich tavern.

                        to be continued...

                        Last edited by The Rookie Detective; 02-29-2024, 02:46 PM.
                        "Great minds, don't think alike"


                        • #42
                          An important note to mention regarding the Gehringer family.

                          It has previously been stated that they were of German Jewish heritage; ergo, they ran a German Jewish gang.

                          In one of my own previous posts, I also made the error of stating they were German Jews, but that is incorrect.

                          Based on the evidence, the Gehringer family was not Jewish, they were protestant Lutherans who were opposed to the united Prussian state.

                          In Germany, they were baptized in a Lutheran church and so are regarded as protestant non-catholic Christians, rather than Jews.

                          This is an important distinction to make in context with the times.

                          I am unsure where the idea that they were of Jewish descent came from.

                          My apologies for stating something as fact that was incorrect.

                          "Great minds, don't think alike"


                          • #43
                            Another interesting fact is that Frederick Gehringer (1853-1909) had an uncle called Martin, who was the younger brother of his father Frederick (senior)

                            Martin Gehringer was a butcher who lived in several places, including Lambeth, Clerkenwell/Holborn, and Union Street East, the former name of Brushfield Street that runs parallel to Dorset Street.

                            Martin had a son called George Andrew Gehringer, his only child, and a fellow Butcher who followed in his father's footsteps.

                            George lived primarily at 3 King David Lane in Shadwell. He lost his a daughter Lena at the age of 19.

                            I find it interesting how Frederick's Uncle and cousin were both Butchers.

                            When you consider that Frederick Gehringer had proven links to

                            37 Flower and Dean Street
                            15 Mitre Street
                            18 George Street
                            61 Wentworth Street
                            33 Brick Lane
                            41 White Lion Street
                            11 Little Pearl Street
                            31 Great Pearl Street

                            And to John McCarthy and Co.

                            And to multiple Lodging houses used by almost all of the Ripper victims

                            There's a lot to arouse the suspicions of those Geo-profilers out there

                            "Great minds, don't think alike"


                            • #44
                              Originally posted by seanr View Post

                              Interesting, why do you think Astrakhan man sounds like a pugilist? - Both the Gehringer families and the McCarthys were involved in the boxing scene by November 1888.

                              I'm under the impression Crossingham and McCarthy were on relatively good terms with each other.
                              Astrakan man's general description sounds to me like a man of flamboyancy.
                              I get the impression that IF Hutchinson was telling the truth, that the man seen with MJK; and whom she responded to warmly by laughing with him, then I believe he was a pugilist and/or a boxer.

                              Pugilists at the time were seen as celebrities. Theatrical showman.

                              It's interesting how it's claimed that MJK had a relative/sister in the Theatre.

                              Perhaps Astrakan man was on friendly terms with her, the kind of friendly terms that Hutchinson fantasized about.


                              "Great minds, don't think alike"


                              • #45
                                The Geringher family seems to have had familial links to Spitalfields area prior to Frederick Geringher the senior relocating from Germany to Brick Lane.

                                Sebastian and Andrew Schwartz of 3 White's Row reference the family name in their will. Intriguingly, Andrew Schwartz appears to have incremently disinherited Frederic Gehringer​ (the senior) in a series of amendments to his will.

                                SCHWARTZ, Sebastian - Will - summary of PRO PROB 11/1806, 1832

                                I Sebastian Schwartz of White Row Spitalfields and also Beckford Place Kennington Capillaire Maker ...
                                * All his debts and funeral expenses to be paid.
                                * To his wife Elizabeth Schwartz all his household goods furniture and household fixtures in his dwelling house at Beckford Place, and all his plate linen china clocks watches and trinkets (except those hereafter mentioned) books pictures prints wines spirits liquors and also 100.
                                * To his brother Andrew Schwartz of 3 White Row his gold watch and chain and seals and his wearing apparel and body linen.
                                * To his brother Andrew Schwartz his leasehold messuage counting house manufactury and premises in which he carries out his business situate in White Row and also the fixtures implements utensils and goodwill for his own use and benefit.
                                * To his sister Magdalene Kovering of Wurtemburg widow 100.
                                * To Christian Willhelm Wuest of Bentinck St Soho tailor 40.
                                * To George Strohhecker of Fore St grocer 25 for his trouble as executor.
                                * To his executors 666 13s 4d in 3% Consolidated Bank Annuities (part of 1000 in life annuities held at the Bank of England) upon trust that they pay the dividends and interest to his step-daughter Elizabeth Jarvis wife of Thomas Jarvis of Vauxhall until her death.
                                * To his executors 333 6s 8d in 3% Consolidated Bank Annuities (the residue of the 1000 life annuities) and any other stock and 50 in long annuities. All his book and other debts stock in trade monies and securities and all the rest and residue of his estate in trust of which 4000 to be invested in 3% Reduced Bank Annuities. The dividends and interest from all these investments to be paid to his wife Elizabeth Schwartz for her sole use, and after her death 1000 (of the 4000) upon trust for the benefit of his step-daughter Elizabeth Jarvis for her sole use, and also 2300 (of the 4000), 333 6s 8d in 3% Consolidated Bank Annuities, 666 13s 4d in 3% Consolidated Bank Annuities and the 50 in long annuities upon trust for the maintenance and education of the children of Elizabeth Jarvis. On any children reaching the age of 21 years they shall receive equal shares of the stock. And also upon trust 500 (of the 4000) amongst the children of his niece Philppine Geringer the wife of George Geringer of Joertel near Wurtzburg. And the residue of the 4000 - 100 to George Geringer, Rosa Jarvis daughter of Elizabeth Jarvis 100.
                                * To Rosa Jarvis 200.
                                * To his brother Martin Schwartz 700.
                                * 700 to be invested for the benefit of Magdalene Kovering and after her death the principal sum to be divided equally between all the children of Philppine Geringer.
                                * To his nephew George Schwartz eldest son of his late brother George Schwartz of Bartinstein 100.
                                * To Thomas Jarvis 200.
                                * To George Geringer 200.
                                * To his present foreman John Rayan 19 guineas.
                                * To the Lutheran Church in the Savoy 19 guineas to be applied to the school.
                                * To the London Missionary Society 25.
                                * To the Charity School of Joertel 19 guineas.
                                * All the residue of the estate to be shared equally amongst his brothers Andrew and Martin Schwartz, his sister Magdalene Kovering and his wife Elizabeth Schwartz.
                                * Appoints Andrew Schwartz, Christian Willhelm Wuest & George Strohhecker as his executors.
                                Signed : S Schwartz on 7 March 1832.
                                Witnesses : Isaac Sheffield jun of Prescott St, Esther Tyerman of 2 Beckford Place.

                                Codicil :
                                * Revokes the appointment of Christian Willhelm Wuest as executor and his legacy of 40.
                                * Appoints John Peter of Basinghall Street as executor and gives him 25.
                                Signed : Sebastian Schwartz on 30 August 1832.
                                Witnesses : Isaac Sheffield jun solicitor of Prescott St, John Springall apprentice to Mr Young of 10 Kennington Place surgeon.

                                Proved at London on 29 September 1832 by the oaths of Andrew Schwartz, George Strohhecker, and John Herman Bitter (named in the will as John Peter) the executors.

                                SCHWARTZ, Andrew - Will - summary of PRO PROB 11/2198, 1854

                                This is the last will and testament of me Andrew Schwartz of Powell's Place City Road Gentleman [capillaire maker] ...
                                * All his debts and funeral expenses to be paid.
                                * To his son-in-law John Powell 50 as a mark of his esteem and regard for him.
                                * To his grandchildren John Powell, Mary Ann Powell & Sarah Powell all his household goods furniture plate linen china wearing apparel books pictures prints clocks watches trinkets and other personal chattels except those later mentioned in equal shares to be held in trust by John Powell [sen] until they reach the age of 21 years or be married.
                                * To his late wife's sister Hannah Holford Sanderson 100.
                                * To his nephew Edward Henry Sanderson 100.
                                * To his nephew Adam Frederic Gehringer of Brick Lane 200.
                                * To his brother Martin Schwartz of Wachbart, Wurtemburg, his gold watch, chain and seals having initials 'S.S.' left to him by his brother Sebastian Schwartz, and his diamond ring (not diamond mourning ring), and 1000. If he dies first then to be shared amongst his wife and children.
                                * To the children of his brother Martin Schwartz 1500 divided equally, as well as the above.
                                * To his Pastor and friend Rev John Peacock of Spencer Place Goswell Road 10 in case he shall need his ministry at the time of his death.
                                * Appoints his friends Ebenezer Hart of 123 Wood St Cheapside woollen draper and James Shick of 22 Rahore St Goswell Rd fusee cutter as his executors, and gives them 19 guineas each.
                                * To his housekeeper Louisa Knight 1000 and the bedstead bedding and furniture within her bedroom as an acknowledgement of her great attention to him over many years.
                                * To the Baptist Missionary Society of Moorgate St 19 guineas.
                                * To the Baptist Borne Missionary Society 19 guineas.
                                * To the Baptist Irish Society 19 guineas.
                                * To the London City Mission 19 guineas.
                                * All his just debts and funeral expenses to be paid.
                                * All the rest and residue of his estate and effects in trust to his executors for the maintenance and education of his grandchildren John Powell, Mary Ann Powell and Sarah Powell the three children of his late daughter Sarah Powell in equal shares with absolute interest being theirs at the age of 21 years. If any of them die before age 21 then the residual estate shall be divided equally between those surviving. If none survive to 21, then it shall be equally divided amongst the children of his brother Martin Schwartz.
                                Signed : Andrew Schwartz on 10 August 1850.
                                Witnesses : William Sheffield solicitor of 68 Old Broad St , Charles Adams of 1 Powell St, City Road.

                                Codicil 1 ...
                                * To his housekeeper Louisa Knight the chest of drawers and easy chair in his bedroom as well as his parrot in its cage.
                                * By mistake Frederic Gehringer is named Adam Frederic Gehringer.
                                Signed 13 Nov 1850.

                                Codicil 2 ...
                                * He revokes the legacy of 50 to John Powell.
                                * To the Dorcas Society, the Benevolent Society and the Christian Instruction Society in connection with the Spencer St Chapel in Goswell St 19 guineas each.
                                * To his nephew Edward Henry Sanderson the portraits belonging to himself and his late wife.
                                * To his nephew Frederic Gehringer his engraving of 'The Raising of Lazarus'.
                                * To his housekeeper Louisa Knight his eight day clock and sideboard in the front room.
                                Signed 14 May 1851.

                                Codicil 3 ...
                                * To his housekeeper Louisa Knight the looking glass in his bedroom, dining table in the palour, fender and fire irons in the dining room, and looking glass in the back parlour, 3 engravings (royal __ on fire, portrait of Williams, portrait of John Powell jun) in the front parlour, the drawing room carpet and rug, 3 pairs of light blue and white dishes, 1 pewter coffee pot, 1 set of tea things with boards, 3 pewter pots marked 'A.M.S.', 3 pairs of pewter candle sticks, 1 pair of snuffers and tray (German silver), 1 copper tea bottle, 1 dozen light blue and white dinner plates, 1 dozen small china plates, all the ornaments in the drawing room, the bedstead and 3 sets of furniture, bed and mattress and blankets and all the bed linen belonging to his bedroom, 5 table and 2 salt spoons (German silver), Bunyan's Holy War and his small Bible.
                                * To Thomas Powell brother of his son-in-law his weather glass, drawing room looking glass, and one pair of black and gold candle lamps in front parlour.
                                * To his executor James Shick 1 pair of solid silver candle sticks, 1 pair of snuffers and tray.
                                * To Frederic Gehringer 1 mahogany dining table in kitchen, 1 looking glass in front parlour, and 1 sofa in drawing room.
                                * To Edward Henry Sanderson 1 round mahogany table and the tea urn in the parlour.
                                * To his grandson John Powell jun his mahogany bookcase, all the books therein and his large family Bible, and all his best knives and forks.
                                * To Sarah Ann Shick wife of James Shick, his Bunyan's Pilgrims Progress.
                                * To his granddaughter Sarah Jane Powell his work box.
                                * To his brother Martin Schwartz all his bed linen and wearing apparel and his gold spectacles.
                                * To his executor Ebenezer Hart one pair of silver candle sticks.
                                * To his granddaughters Mary Ann Powell and Sarah Jane Powell 1 silver cruet stand and glasses, 1 silver decanter, spirits, 10 silver table spoons, 2 gravy spoons, 12 tea spoons, 6 salt spoons, 5 decanter labels, 1 pair sugar tongs, 1 cheese knife, 1 butter knife, 1 mustard spoon, and one toast rack and one pair decanter stands (German silver) to be equally divided between them at age 21 years, and if one dies the whole to the survivor.
                                Signed 1 Oct 1851.

                                Codicil 4 ...
                                * He revokes the legacy of 200 to Frederic Gehringer, and gives him 100.
                                * He revokes the legacy of 1000 to Martin Schwartz or his wife and children, and gives 400 instead to Martin Schwartz or his wife, and 500 to the children if neither parent survives him.
                                Signed 8 Oct 1852.

                                Codicil 5 ...
                                * He revokes the legacy of 100 to Frederic Gehringer made in codicil 4, and gives 100 to his nephew Martin Gehringer of 29 Union Street, Spitalfields.
                                Signed 5 Jan 1853.

                                Codicil 6 ...
                                * As his executor Ebenezer Hart is in poor health, he revokes his appointment.
                                * Appoints his friend Thomas Powell of 11 Bonners Road, Victoria Park as one of his executors, and gives him 19 guineas.
                                * He revokes the legacy to Frederic Gehringer of dining table, looking glass and sofa, and gives those items to Martin Gehringer.
                                Signed 5 Feb 1853.

                                Proved at London with 6 codicils on 22 September 1854 by the oaths of James Shick and Thomas Powell.
                                Source (but also available from the National Archives)
                                Last edited by seanr; 03-04-2024, 12:02 AM.