W. Greer Harrison and The Air and Water Sterilizing Company - Part 1
In October of 1894 William Greer Harrison became a director of a newly-formed corporation created to market an invention intended to provide pure drinking water. The inventor and some of the other directors were local doctors, some with ties to the British Isles.
The Morning Call (San Francisco), October 25, 1894, Page 3, Columns 3-4
Articles of Incorporation
The following articles of incorporation
have been filed in the office of the Secretary
The Air and Water Sterilizing Company.
Principal place of business, San
Francisco. Capital stock, $1,000,000, with
C. F. Buckley, Luke Robinson, William
Greer Harrison, Winslow Anderson, W.
F. McNutt, F. A. Orr and M. Herzstein
of San Francisco and Timothy Hopkins
of Menlo Park as directors.
The Morning Call (San Francisco), November 07, 1894, Page 8, Column 6
DEATH TO BACILLI.
Dangers in Water Can Be Easily Avoided.
Drs. Buckley, McNutt, Anderson and Robinson Unite in Bringing It Into Practice.
(Note that while Winslow Anderson is referred to in the headline of the second article he is not mentioned in the text)
The Pacific Medical editorial mentioned in the second Call article:
Pacific Medical Journal, Volume 37, October, 1894, Page 652
AIR AND WATER PURIFIER
CORNELIUS F. BUCKLEY et al.
Directory entry for Buckley:
Medical and Surgical Directory of the United States (Detroit:Polk, 1886), page 171
Buckley C F(R), R C P's. Ed, Scot, 1864: Queen's Univ, Ireland. 1865, 715 Larkin.
A brief review of book by Buckley:
Pacific Medical Journal, Volume 25, October, 1882, Page 233
Cerebral Hyperemia: Does It Exist? A consideration of some views of Dr. Wm. A. Hammond. By C. F. Buckley, B.A., M.D., formerly Superintendent of Haydock's Lodge Asvlum, England. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1882." San Francisco, A. L. Bancroft & Co. Price, $1.00. Dr. Buckley, the writer of this little book, is an old-established practitioner of San Francisco. He holds a steady and vigorous pen, and handles Prof. Hammond without gloves. We are not prepared, after the brief examination to which time has restricted us, to pronounce confidently on the merits of the work. And though we are not inclined to deny the existence of cerebral hyperemia, we are disposed to side with Dr. Buckley in his general current of criticism on the statements and arguments adduced by the author under notice. It has always appeared to us that much of the writing of Dr. Hammond is hasty and ill-digested, and full of assumption; and that he is open to severe criticism, such as is visited on him in the present instance.
Link to the book:
Cerebral Hyperaemia ; Does It Exist? (NY: Putnam, 1882), link
W. Greer Harrison and The Air and Water Sterilizing Company - Part 5
According to the Call, Dr. Winslow Anderson aced the Royal College exams in 1891.
The Morning Call (San Francisco), August 09, 1891, Page 2, Column 6
ONE HUNDRED PER CENT.
A San Francisco Physician Astonishes London Surgeons.
Dr, Winslow Anderson of San Francisco,
who has been studying in London for the
past eighteen months, has just received the
following degrees: Member of Royal College
of Surgeons, Licentiate of Royal College of
Physicians and Licentiate of Society of
Apothecaries, of London. The President
of the faculty of the Royal College of Surgeons
states that Dr. Anderson is the first
student who has ever been marked 100 per
cent in the final examination, He seemed
surprised, too, that such should have been
the case and that the successful candidate
was a physician who graduated from a California
medical college. The President has
no doubt awakened to the fact that California
colleges can turn out bright graduates.
An article about the return of Dr & Mrs Anderson to California after his studies in London and other travels.
Pacific Medical Journal, Volume 35, May 1892, Page 301
(I haven't found Volume 34 (1891) of the PMJ in Google books. There might be more about Anderson's time in London there.)
An article with a section about Anderson as Surgeon General of the California National Guard, with a picture.
The Overland Monthly, Volume 38, August, 1901, pages 132-4
Maneuvers of the National Guard
by James F. Archibald
A bio sketch:
A Cyclopedia of American Medical Biography (Baltimore: Remington, 1920), Page 28
Anderson, Winslow (1860-1917)
JAMA.: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 68, May 26, 1917, Page 1569
By American Medical Association
Winslow Anderson, M.D., San Francisco; University of San Francisco, 1884; M. R. C. P. London, M. R. C. S. Eng., and L. S. A. London, 1891; aged 56; a Fellow of the American Medical Association, and since 1896 a member of the General Medical Council of Great Britain; founder of St. Winifred's Hospital, San Francisco; assistant to the chair of materia medica and medical chemistry and later adjunct professor of theory and practice of medicine in his alma mater; since 1896, professor of abdominal surgery and gynecology in and president of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, San Francisco; editor of the Pacific Medical Journal for many years; colonel and surgeon general of the National Guard of California from 1900 to 1911; died in New York, May 7.
A book Anderson wrote.
A Description of the Desiccated Human Remains in the California State Mining Bureau (Sacramento: 1888), link
By Winslow Anderson MD
W. G. Harrison and the Beaconsfield (Disraeli) Testimonial
The Annual Register of World Events: A Review of the Year, Volume 120, December, 1878, Page 122
edited by Edmund Burke
Presentation To Lord Beaconsfield.—An address, enclosed in a silver casket, ornamented with gold, was presented to-day to the Earl of Beaconsfield, at Downing Street, by a deputation on behalf of 400 British residents in California. Mr. W. G. Harrison, of San Francisco, the delegate of the subscribers, read the address, which was an expression of the subscribers' "high appreciation of the brilliant statesmanship " evinced by Lord Beaconsfield in the late European crisis, by which he had "secured to Europe an honourable peace, assured civil and religious liberty to oppressed races, and inaugurated a reign of order and tranquility where anarchy and oppression were rife." The casket was presented by a son of Mr. Alexander Forbes, chairman of the San Francisco Committee.
The 1895 by-laws of the Bohemian Club describe the conditions under which a visitor to San Francisco could be issued a time-limited pass to the club. It also contains a listing of members.
Constitution and By-Laws of the Bohemian Club of San Francisco (1895), link
By Bohemian Club (San Francisco, Calif.)
Sec. 29.—At the request of a member, non-residents
of the city may be admitted to the privileges of the Club
for a period of two weeks, two members of the Directory
consenting. A card shall be issued to each visitor, signed
by the President and Secretary. Members introducing
visitors shall be held responsible for any indebtedness such
visitors may contract. The time of visitors' cards may be
extended by the Directory, in their discretion, for a term
not to exceed two weeks, and to non-residents, eminent in
literature, art, music or science, indefinitely. A card
shall not be issued to the same person twice within the
Here are some members I've identified as doctors, plus the entry for Harrison, with the dates of admittance.
Dr. Winslow Anderson, the editor and owner of the Pacific Medical Journal, the largest and most thrifty medical magazine published on the Pacific Coast, is one of the leading physicians of San Francisco. He has a chair in the Medical Department of the University of California and an enormous practice among the wealthiest classes of the community. Though evidently but little over thirty years of age, he is on the topmost round of the ladder.
[Anderson was also one of the incorporators of the Air and Water Sterilizer Company with William Greer Harrison.]
Dr. Beverly Cole, a portrait of whom was presented in our June number, is the President of the medical department of the University of California, and though well along in years, is one of the youngest men in the State. He walks nobody's chalk line but his own, and no member of the "old guard" ever saw him attempt to carry water on both shoulders. He is a splendid teacher, having been engaged in the work for well on to forty years. He has been around the world several times, crossed the Atlantic and back sixteen times, has done one of the largest and most lucrative practices in San Francisco all these years, and in addition has been the wheel horse politically in his party, as well as one of the most prominent Knight Templars on the Pacific Coast. Take him all in all he is one of the most versatile men one would meet in a year's journey.
Dr. Julius Rosenstern [Rosenstirn]is one of the most successful surgeons in California. In his private surgical sanitarium and upon the outside he is one of the most busily engaged surgeons. He is not only eminently scientific and artistic as a surgeon but, together with his delightful family he is a pronounced social success.
Dr. J. Dennis Arnold made a pronounced impress [sic] upon the visiting doctors not only as an artist and scientist, but as a delightful, cultured, clubable man.
The article lists the doctors who registered for the first day of the 1894 convention. I don't see Dr. Howard's name listed.
The Morning Call (San Francisco), June 05, 1894, Page 8
Doctors Gather From All Quarters.
IN ANNUAL SESSION HERE.
They Will Get Down to Work This Morning.
A BANQUET IN MAPLE HALL.
Nearly Two Hundred of the Medical
Editors Enjoy Themselves at
Interestingly, the 1871 AMA convention was also held in San Francisco. Dr. R. Beverly Cole, later a member of the Bohemian club, served on a committee which picked a paper written by Dr. Benjamin Howard as one of two winners in the annual essay contest.
Transactions of the American Medical Association (Philadelphia: 1871), Volume 22, Pages 25-26
Dr. T. M. Logan, of California, Chairman of the Committee on Prize Essays, presented the following report:—
The Committee on Prize Essays respectfully report, that five papers have been submitted to their decision, in the following order of their reception:—
1. "An Essay on the Chemical Constitution of the Bile," bearing the motto, "Divide et impera."
2. "The Direct Method of Artificial Respiration for the Treatment of Persons Apparently Dead from Suffocation by Drowning, or from other Causes." Motto, "Festina lente."
3. "Intussusception and its Treatment: illustrated by the History of a Typical and Successfully Treated Case."
4. "Experiments in Reproduction."
5. "Researches on the Physiology of the Nervous Ganglionic System and their Application to Pathology."
This last paper did not reach the hands of the Committee until 30th April. Consequently, it could not be read critically by all the members of the Committee in time for the present session. The Committee, however, recommend that it be referred to the Section on Physiology to make such disposition of it as may seem fit in their judgment.
The first mentioned essay, although making no pretensions to originality, nevertheless bears evidence of much research and diligence on the part of the author, and affords a valuable summary of all that is now known on the subject of which it treats. The Committee deem it worthy of one of the prizes.
The second paper contains an analytical Digest of all the known procedures hitherto resorted to in the treatment of the accidents to which it refers, and suggests a direct method, capable of prompt and easy application, illustrated by drawings, and confirmed by cases of great practical value. To this paper the Committee also adjudge the other prize.
Signed, THOS. M. LOGAN, Chairman.
H. H. TOLAND,
R. BEVERLY COLE,
L. C. LANE.
The Permanent Secretary then broke the seals of the accompanying envelopes, and announced that Drs. Edward R. Taylor, of California, and Benj. Howard, of New York, were the successful essayists.
I get the impression that the judges were not supposed to know the names of the essay authors before picking the winners. However the Pacific Medical Journal had earlier reprinted a much briefer piece on Howard's method.
Pacific Medical Journal, Volume 3 (new series); Volume 12, January, 1870, pages 371-373
New Method of Restoration from Drowning.
"Dr. Benjamin Howard of New York recommends a method, which is novel in some respects and appears to be worthy of trial."
Henry Gibbons, presumably identical to the "H. Gibbons" of the prize essay committee, was then listed as editor of the PMJ.
Howard was NOT listed as a delegate to the 1871 convention. According to the following notice it was possible for a doctor to attend without being a delegate.
New York Medical Journal, Volume 13, April 1871, page 494
The twenty-second annual session of the American Medical Association will be held in San Francisco, Cal., May 2, 1871, at 11 A. M. Secretaries of all medical organizations are requested to forward lists of their delegates as soon as elected, to the permanent secretary. Any respectable physician who may desire to attend, but cannot do so as a delegate, may be made a member by invitation, upon the recommendation of the Committee of Arrangements.
Someone in New York sent the Lancet an account of the convention.
The meeting of the American Medical Association at San Francisco was not only the great medical event of the year, but equally of the quarter of a century of the Association's existence. As Professor Still.', the president, very aptly remarked, when the Association was organised, in 1847, California was a wilderness and San Francisco was almost unknown. A journey to this terra incognita was an undertaking full of adventure, which only the most daring frontiersman was willing to attempt. Now the trip across the continent is but a holiday excursion, which the old and young, rich and poor, daily enjoy. California has become one of the most important states in the Union, and San Francisco a populous city. The Association met in Pacific Hall, May 2nd, and on the roll of the Convention were the names of 200 members in attendance, representing twenty-three different states, two territories, the United States army and navy, and several foreign states. Dr. Stout, on the part of the profession of California, made an address of welcome, and the President delivered the annual address before the Association. His theme was that which forms the staple of our annual discourses—medical education. He strongly recommended a union of schools in their efforts to secure reform. Two prize essays were announced—viz. (1) "On the Chemical Construction of Bile," by Dr. E. R. Taylor, of Sacramento, California; and (2) "The Direct Method of Artificial Respiration of persons apparently dead from Suffocation by Drowning or from other causes," by Dr. B. Howard, of New York. The sections on Surgery, Medicine, Obstetrics, and Physiology, were organised, and discussed the various papers referred to them. The reports of committees were few in number, and of little importance. Dr. Gibbons presented a valuable paper "On the Medical Botany of California," embracing specimens, with descriptions of 180 indigenous plants. The Association heartily adopted the proposition of Dr. Storer, to aid in the formation of a memorial fund in honour of the late Professor Simpson. A resolution in favour of the establishment of professorships of hygiene in medical schools was adopted, and also one recommending the formation of State Boards of Health. The " apple of discord" was the woman question. This was introduced in the form of a proposed amendment to the constitution of the Association, as follows :—" Nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prevent delegates from colleges in which women are taught and graduated in medicine, and hospitals in which medical womengraduates attend, from being received into this Association." After a long and most exciting debate, the resolution was indefinitely postponed. Subsequently the subject was brought up in another form, a resolution being presented " that the American Medical Association acknowledges the right of its members to meet in consultation the graduates and teachers of Women's Medical Colleges, provided the code of ethics of the Association is observed." This resolution also met violent opposition, and was indefinitely postponed. The scientific discussions of the session were very meagre, both in the sections and in the Association. The members were most hospitably entertained by the profession and citizens of San Francisco, and though this, like other annual gatherings of the profession in this country, did little to advance the science of medicine, it did much to promote good feeling and strengthen the ties of professional fellowship.
New York, May, 1871.
Beverly Cole's 1901 obituary:
The Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of California, Volume 31, April, 1901, pages 349-51
By Medical Society of the State of California
A biographic entry for Benjamin Howard which indicates an early interest in gynecology or pediatrics:
The Physicians and Surgeons of the United States (1878), page 675
edited by William Biddle Atkinson
HOWARD, BENJAMIN, New York city, graduated from the coll. of phys. and surg., New York, in 1858. He is a member of the N. Y. acad. of med., of the section of obstet. and diseases of women and children of the N. Y. acad. of med.; of the med. soc. of the co. of N. Y. He is now (Feb., 1878) in Europe. In 1870 he look the Am. med. asso. prize for an essay entitled "On the Treatment of Aneurism, with experiments for the Closure of Arteries by a New Method."
Plate from Howard's 1871 winning essay. Apparently in 1871 lifeguards dressed in the style popularized by Abraham Lincoln.
One of the members of the Prize Essay committee at the 1871 San Francsico American Medical Association convention which awarded a prize to Dr. Benjamin Howard was L. C. Lane. Dr Levi Cooper Lane was the founder of the Cooper Medical College in San Francisco. In April, 1895, a Cooper student, Theodore Durrant was arrested and charged with the murders of Blanche Lamont and Minnie Williams at the Emanuel Baptist Church. It was undoubtedly the intense interest in the Durrant case that made the Call's "Dr. Howard" story timely and resonant.
The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Supplement I (New York: White, 1910), Page 341
LANE, Levi Cooper, surgeon, was born on a farm near Cincinnati, O., May 9, 1830, son of Ira and Hannah (Cooper) Lane, and grandson of Jesse and Hannah (Huddeston) Lane. His early education was chiefly acquired in private. At the age of sixteen he taught in the district schools of Butler county, and later he attended Farmer's College, and Union College and, although he did not take a full course, he subsequently received the degree of A.M. and the honorary degree of LL.D. from the latter. He studied medicine with his uncles, Drs. Esaias and Elias S. Cooper, and was graduated at the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1851. In the same year he was appointed an interne at the New York state hospital, and four years later became assistant surgeon in the United States navy. He pursued his studies in medicine and surgery with unremitting vigor while in the navy, and on one of his voyages to Europe he obtained a furlough and took a course at the university of Gottingen. In 1861, having resigned from the navy, he joined his uncle, Dr. Elias S. Cooper, who had organized the first medical school on the Pacific coast, in San Francisco, Cal. Dr. Lane taught in this school and became thoroughly identified in spirit and action with his uncle's work until the latter's death in 1862. Early m 1875, to further increase his medical knowledge, he visited London, Edinburgh, Paris, Vienna, and Berlin, and after two years study received the degrees of M.R.C.S., England, and M.D. summa aim honore, Berlin. On his return to San Francisco he resuscitated the institution organized by his uncle, and in 1888 he founded its successor, Cooper Medical College. The buildings he erected from his earnings in his practice which with subsequent endowments approximated $500,000. He built as an addition Lane Hall, a large auditorium with laboratories and class rooms, and also the Lane hospital, the latter building being opened to the public in 1894. He also founded a yearly course of instruction, the Lane course of medical lectures, to be given by some eminent authority annually selected for his ability in some department of medical science. His last years were devoted to the work of Lane hospital and Cooper Medical College. His methods were simple and direct with clear-cut precision in everything. He devised many original operations in surgery, always seeking the best ways of perfecting the surgeon's art. In 1870 he was married to Pauline C. Sampson, of Massachusetts, and died childless at San Francisco, Feb. 18, 1902.
Account of the Durrant case, with pic.
Celebrated Criminal Cases of America (San Francisco: Barry, 1910), Pages 114-122
By Thomas Samuel Duke, Captain of Police, San Francisco
HISTORY OF WM. HENRY THEODORE DURRANT, MURDERER OF BLANCHE LAMONT AND MINNIE WILLIAMS
The San Francisco Call, April 27, 1895, Page 7, Column 1
CITY NEWS IN BRIEF
The CALL's article in regard to the identity of
London's "Jack the Ripper" was telegraphed
to New York and thence to London and to all
parts of Europe. A hint of this matter was
published in an English paper a few months
ago, but the full facts did not come out until
published in the CALL.