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  • Wickerman
    replied
    Originally posted by lynn cates View Post
    Hello David. Thanks for posting that.

    "The idea of a quarrel having preceded the murder is, however, generally discredited."

    Ah! so perhaps this is what the Leman lads referred to?

    Cheers.
    LC
    Or perhaps, the remark given in the Star on the evening of the 2nd:
    "the Leman-street police have reason to doubt the truth of the story."
    was in response to the comment published in the Evening Post on the evening of the 1st. (above).

    In other words, the Star did not get their story from the police at all, but from yesterdays press.

    Leave a comment:


  • David Orsam
    replied
    Thanks Paul. I missed one as below, which contains a useful summary of the duties of a coroner:

    Tuesday, 23 October 1888

    THE BERNER STREET TRAGEDY

    Conclusion of the Inquest – The jury return a Verdict of Wilful Murder

    Mr. Wynne Baxter, Coroner for South-East Middlesex, resumed the inquiry to-day at the Vestry Hall, Cable Street, St. George’s in the East, into the circumstances surrounding the death of Elizabeth Stride, the unfortunate woman who was murdered outside the International Socialist Club, Berner Street, in the early morning of Sunday, September 30.

    Detective-inspector Reed (sic), H Division, was in charge of the case, and was the first witness examined. He said that since the last sitting of the Court he had made enquiries and examined the books of the Bromley Sick Asylum and found therein the account of the death of John Thomas Stride, a carpenter, of Poplar. The date given was October 20, 1884. Witness had also found Elizabeth Watts, the sister of Mrs. Malcolm, and she was now alive.

    Police-constable Stride, 335 W, identified the body as that of his aunt. She was married in 1872.

    The Coroner, in summing up, said the jury would probably agree with him that it would be unreasonable to adjourn this inquiry again on the chance of something further being ascertained to elucidate the mysterious case to which they had patiently devoted so much time. It was true that one of the principal duties of the Court was to inquire “who gave the wounds, and who are, in what manner, culpable either of the act or of the force, and who were present, either men or women.” It was also true that the facts proved in evidence were insufficient to return a positive answer to this inquiry; but it might surely be urged that they had had before them those who appeared most likely to afford information, and that the interval which had occurred since the death justified a doubt if even a long adjournment would place them in a more satisfactory position. There was in the evidence no clue to the murderer, and no suggested motive for the murder. Those who knew deceased were unaware of anyone likely to injure her. She never accused anyone of having threatened her. She never expressed any fear of anyone, and although she had outbursts of drunkenness, she was generally a quiet woman. The ordinary motives of murder – revenge, jealousy, theft, and passion – appeared, therefore, to be absent from this case: while it was clear from the accounts of all who saw her that night, as well as from the post-mortem examination, that she was no otherwise than sober at the time of her death. In the absence of motive, the age and class of woman selected as victim, and the place and time of the crime, there was a similarity between this case and those mysteries which had recently occurred in that neighbourhood. There had been no skilful mutilation as in the case in Mitre-square – possibly the work of an imitator; but there had been the same skill exhibited in the way in which the victim had been entrapped, and the injuries inflicted so as to cause instant death and prevent blood from soiling the operator, and the same daring defiance of immediate detection, which unfortunately for the piece (sic) of the inhabitants and the trade of the neighbourhood, had hitherto been only too successful.

    The jury returned a verdict of wilful murder against some person or persons unknown.

    Leave a comment:


  • PaulB
    replied
    Amazing job, David. Many thanks for sharing.

    Leave a comment:


  • lynn cates
    replied
    Leman

    Hello David. Thanks for posting that.

    "The idea of a quarrel having preceded the murder is, however, generally discredited."

    Ah! so perhaps this is what the Leman lads referred to?

    Cheers.
    LC

    Leave a comment:


  • David Orsam
    started a topic Double Event in the Evening Post

    Double Event in the Evening Post

    I have now transcribed the articles in the London Evening Post following the murders of Stride and Eddowes but excluding, where possible, those which were from press agencies and thus can be found in other newspapers. No doubt a few of this category will have slipped through the net but many of the Evening Post reports seem to be exclusive to that newspaper, being written by its own reporter(s). Hopefully someone will find something of use or interest in the below which will make it worthwhile.

    Monday, October 1, 1888

    THE MURDERS

    Latest Particulars of the Whitechapel Horrors

    SEVERAL ARRESTS – INQUEST ON THE BERNER’S STREET VICTIM

    The two horrible atrocities committed in the early hours of Sunday morning – one in Berner-street, Commercial-road, and the other in Mitre-square, Aldgate – have thrilled the public with a sense of fear. It is clear that the murders are the work of the same hand, and that that hand is the fiendish one responsible for the appalling crimes that have made Whitechapel the dreaded murder district it has become. The points of similarity between these two latest crimes and the four that have preceded it are numerous. They were committed in what was practically the same district. It is probably no injustice to the dead to say that the victims belonged to the same class from which previous victims have been singled out. The assassin was the same, and he held to his old object of murder and mutilation. These facts are clear from the terrible narrative. After the events of Sunday morning there is no longer room for doubt that prowling the East-end streets at night is a man upon whose head is a cumulative weight of crime, and who will continue to wreak his murderous intent until he dangles at the end of the hangman’s rope.

    If the Hanbury-street tragedy was dramatic, the Berner-street and Mitre-square murders of the first hour of Sunday were doubly dramatic. While the one was being discovered the other was being committed. While the court in Berner-street was ringing with the cry of alarm attending upon the discovery of the first victim the murderer was probably cutting the throat of and mutilating the woman in Mitre-square. That he did not mutilate the woman in Berner-street is probably attributable either to the fact that he was disturbed, unconsciously by the disturber, or that he fancied himself seen. Probably too – and no probability seems too diabolical and extravagant – he did not choose to accomplish his terrible purpose upon this particular woman. The court was not unfrequented. Though it must have been comparatively secluded after midnight, it was not empty. The Jewish Club at the corner was holding revelry, and, according to the statements of several members thereof, men had left the club premises for a short time to obtain a little fresh air. This was a few minutes before the discovery of the crime, perhaps even while the knife was being drawn across the woman’s throat. Lewis Diemshitz (sic) drove his penny-cart into the court about one o’clock. The neighbourhood, no doubt, was in its normal nightly condition – normal, that is, for the hour following Saturday midnight. People were moving about. The gaslight shone in the Jewish Club, and the occupants of the three little cottages in the yard of the houses in Berner-street proper were not all abed. There was a certain publicity in the court. From all accounts, it was not a likely place to choose for either immorality or murder. Probably these facts flashed through the miscreant’s brain before or after his deed. Be that as it may, a few feet from the pavement and over against the wall of the court, he cut his unsuspecting victim’s throat. There he stopped. He may have been disturbed or he may not. Out of consideration for his own safety, he may have decided that to proceed with his work of mutilation was far too hazardous in such a spot. In any case, he made off without perpetrating those mutilations which, without doubt, were originally intended by him when he decoyed this wretched woman into the shadow of the yard.

    THE BERNER-STREET WOMAN IDENTIFIED

    The woman has been identified as Elizabeth Stride, and it has been ascertained that she passed the day before her death in a lodging house in Flower and Dean-street, Spitalfields. Turning off the High-street, Whitechapel, on the left going east, one enters Commercial-street, and some few turnings down the right is Flower and Dean-street, a narrow thoroughfare, with, perhaps, for the East-end, a fairly presentable appearance. One side of the street is mainly occupied by a huge pile of modern buildings intended for occupation by the families of artisans, and rented almost exclusively by a colony of middle class Jews. The other side presents a far more dingy appearance. The brickwork of the houses is blackened with age, and the doors and windows alike present the only familiar aspects betokening the abode of the extreme poor. Most of the houses are registered lodging houses, and it was in one of these places, at the entrance to the street from the main road, that poor “Long Liz”, as she was familiarly known by her associates, spent her last night on earth. In Flower and Dean street, numbers are unknown , or, at least, not in visible appearance, and a certain amount of inquiry was absolutely necessary before “No. 33” (sic) could be unearthed. Although the external appearance was poor, yet within, for a house of its description, things seemed to look uncommonly comfortable, especially considering the fact that here nightly nearly 100 of the London poor find their resting place. Calling at an early hour this morning, our representative found the occupants all astir, and the one topic of conversation amongst both sexes seemed to be the diabolical murders. This was the experience that had likewise been gained just previously in hastily traversing the street from end to end in search of “No. 32”. Knots of people were to be seen standing at the doorways discussing the all-absorbing theme. A palpable shudder ran through the frames of three or four elderly dames who were gathered in front of a glowing fire this morning when our representative entered the portals of No. 32, and opened a conversation with the inquiry if any of those present had known “Long Liz”. A chorus of voices, for by this time several curiosity-stricken sleepy-looking youths had gathered round, rapidly answered “yes”, and then an old man stepped forward.

    THE LODGING-HOUSE WATCHMAN’S STORY

    He said his name was Thomas Bates, and that he was the watchman of the house, and had held that post for a good many years. Off and on, said he, “Long Liz” had lived with them for five or six years, but her real name he never knew. She was a Swede by birth, and some years ago lost her husband, who was shipwrecked and drowned. He had always known her as a clean and hardworking woman. Her usual occupation was that of a char-woman, and it was only when driven to extremities that she walked the streets. Amongst her companions and the occupants of the house she was extremely popular, despite her quiet and at times reserved demeanour. She would at times disappear for a month or so, even as much as three months, but she always turned up again, and they were ever glad to see her and welcome her back. She returned to the house on Tuesday last, after a somewhat prolonged absence, and remained there until Saturday night. That evening she went out about seven o’clock, when she appeared to be in the most cheery spirits and in excellent health. The fact of her not returning last night was not taken any particular notice of, for it was my no means an unusual circumstance. Their apprehensions, however, were aroused when rumours of the murders reached them, and their fears were confirmed when in the morning afterwards a man who knew “Long Liz” well in life called and informed them that he had identified her body at the mortuary.

    FROM BERNER-STREET TO MITRE-SQUARE

    Though the assassin left, from whatever motives, Elizabeth Stride unmutilated in the Berner-street court, his subsequent action shows that even if fear of discovery prompted him to flee, that fear was but momentary. His great daring, his inexplicable and incomprehensible courage – if, indeed, such a word is not debased by its use in connection with so hideously inhuman a monster – did not forsake him. His nerves must have been unshaken. He emerged from that darksome court, leaving the dead body of Stride behind him, still unsatiated with blood, and still determined upon fulfilling his foul object of mutilation. Through the rain-swept streets he must have flitted with his bloody knife concealed about his person, and with brain engraved by one horrid and unsatisfied desire. In the dead of the night he made his way in the direction of Mitre-square in search of another victim. No-one seems to have seen him. It is but fair to assume that someone must have seen him as he passed from street to street, and that he must have passed one, if not more than one, constable on his beat, for the distance from Berner-street to Mitre-square takes ten minutes sharp walking to cover. Yet no constable seems to have seen him. Hard though this is to believe, the fact is there that no policeman stopped him to question him. He attracted no attention and aroused no suspicions. He passed with impunity from one locality to another, and in the neighbourhood of Mitre-square met his second victim for the night. In the centre of the quadrangle formed by Hounsditch, Aldgate and Leadenhall-street, and in the nest of courts and alleys terminating in St Mary Axe, stands Mitre-square, an ill-lighted, and at that hour, deserted spot. To the square there are three entries, and to one who knows the locality it would seem an easy place to watch. It would not appear to be beyond what might be expected from an ordinarily vigilant police, for no one, much less a man with a woman, to enter that square unobserved and to remain in it unnoticed. Yet, notwithstanding that the East-end is supposed to be swarming with police, and the constable’s lantern to be flashing every moment upon the unlit spots, the miscreant with his victim passed into the square. Shortly before – at half-past one – Police Constable Watkins, 881, went round the square and saw nothing unusual. Watkins is a member of the City police, within whose area of patrol Mitre-square stands. He is spoken of as an intelligent man, and one who did his duty conscientiously and well. There is no reason as yet to doubt that he passed round the square at the time he says he did, and saw or heard nothing suspicious. Arrived at the end of his beat, he took it up again at the beginning and at 1.45 re-entered the square. By that time the murderer had done his ghastly work. He had had his fill of horrors, and had departed unseen as he had come. In the south-west corner of the square lay the body of a woman with throat cut and abdomen mutilated. Not only was her throat cut, but her face hacked with the instrument with which the deed was done. Her abdomen was ripped open, and her intestines placed about her neck. All this was done in awful silence. George James Morris, a watchman employed at a warehouse in Mitre-square heard nothing, though he listened for and heard the constable’s footsteps as the square was from time to time paced by him. The body of the woman was taken to the mortuary after it had been cursorily examined by the police surgeon called to the spot. There it awaits identification. At ten o’clock this morning it had not been recognised. The body is, it is feared, too dreadfully mutilated to be recognised other than by the clothes or the pawn-tickets which were found lying near her.

    A NIGHT IN THE MURDER DISTRICT

    Those present in the vicinity of the crimes during last night may well have noticed the augmentation of the ordinary patrols which have been made by the authorities both of the Metropolitan and City forces. In every street was to be heard the “regulation” step of the policeman. It was he only who disturbed the silence of the night, for, which very few exceptions, the detective officers were invisible. Walking along the main thoroughfare one would occasionally be startled by the sudden and unexpected appearance of a plain-clothes officer from some obscure doorway or recess, where, unless he had made his presence known, he and his comrades might have been passed unobserved. Women and children go in fear of their lives, but even men express a dread of the “Whitechapel murderer.” The exception in this fear-stricken community are the policeman, who, with measured tread, patrol the thoroughfares and small byeways with deep anxiety. Both Sir Charles Warren, for the Metropolitan Police Force, and Colonel Fraser, for the City Police Force, have since Sunday drafted a large force of men into the neighbourhood for special duty. The former has ordered constables on to Commercial-street and Leman-street Police-stations from the “A” and “B” Divisions; while Colonel Fraser has drawn men from every district in the City for duty in that portion of the area nearest Whitechapel which is considered dangerous. These augmentations are only at night.

    ARRESTS ON SUSPICION

    Shortly after ten o’clock last night a man whose behaviour was suspicious was arrested by a police-constable in the neighbourhood of Commercial-street, and at once taken to the police station in that thoroughfare, where he was questioned by the inspector on duty respecting his whereabouts during Saturday night and the early hours of Sunday morning. The prisoner, however, readily furnished his name and address, and apparently had no knowledge whatever of the details of the murders. He was discharged upon his statement being verified. The man is described by the police as being in a very excited condition. At a late hour last night an arrest was made in the neighbourhood of Whitechapel and the man taken to Leman-street, where he is still detained. At 3.15 this morning, a second man was arrested and likewise brought to Leman-street Police-station. He remains under detention. The police, presumably under instructions from headquarters, manifest the greatest reserve in communicating information, and at present decline to state either the reasons given by the prisoners or the circumstances which led to their arrests. There is, however, good reason to believe that so far not the slightest tangible clue has been obtained as to the perpetrator of the two horrible murders that are now thrilling the East-end population. From an early hour this morning a considerable crowd, chiefly consisting of women and children has been collected outside the Leman-street Police-station, and the excitement is growing. Scotland Yard detectives, aided by the district police, are scouring the neighbourhood in search of much needed clues and Leman-street at the moment of writing is a scene of bustle and activity.

    THE INQUEST

    The inquest on the unfortunate woman was opened in the Vestry Hall, Cable-street, St George’s-in-the-East, this morning, by Mr. Wynne Baxter, who held the inquest on the Buck’s-row and Hanbury-street victims.

    The jury, having been sworn, proceeded at once to view the body, which was laid out in the mortuary attached to the church of St George’s-in-the-East, passing through the grave-yard for that purpose, and elbowing their way through a motley crowd of sightseers who had been allowed by the police to enter the grounds, for what reason was not apparent. The woman was laid upon the slate exactly as she had been found. None of her clothing had been removed or interfered with. The dress was partially opened, revealing the breast, just as she was picked up, and the left-hand side of the face was covered with mud where she had struck the earth on falling after the infliction of the wound. The gash in the throat was not nearly as extensive as in the Buck’s-row or Hanbury-street tragedies, not extending round the neck, but being a deep cut, completely severing the windpipe, and apparently only just sufficiently deep and long to effect that object. The ghastly wound, the blackened and dirt-begrimed face, and the yellow skin, make up a repulsive sight; but it was particularly noticeable that the expression of the features was placid and calm, and not in the least painful. The mouth had even a pleasant expression, showing that death had surprised her swiftly and suddenly, and without any preliminary terror having been inspired.

    William West (sic), of 40, Berner-street, Commercial-road, said he was a printer. His house was at the back of the club, in the yard where the deceased was found. The entrance to the yard was through two wooden gates which were partly closed at night. There was also a small door, which, when all the tenants were in and retired for the night, was also locked. No particular person looked after the locking of the gates or door. There was only one other house in the yard, but it was arranged in three or four tenements, and having three or four doors leading into the yard. There was no other way out of the yard except through the gate. Opposite the gate there was a workshop occupied by Messrs. Hindley and Co., sack manufacturers. He did not think they had any other way out of the yard. Adjoining Hindley’s premises was a stable, which he believed was unoccupied. The next were the premises belonging to the club. There was also a building – whether stables or dwelling house he could not say – in Parry’s-gardens, which looked into the yard. He could not say if there was an exit that way.

    The Coroner said he must have a more accurate description from some other person. It looked to him from the plan he had as though there was an exit that way.

    Witness: With regard to the club, there was a meal room on the ground floor, with a kitchen behind. Neither of these, however, looked into the yard, as though there was a passage between. The passage led to the yard. Witness’s own place consisted of two rooms. The other rooms were used in the printing of the Workers’ Friend. The club consisted of 70 or 80 members. Any working man, of any nationality, could belong to it. It was, in a sense, a political club, insomuch as it was a Socialist club. It was generally understood that only those professing Socialist principles could be elected. Members were proposed by one person and seconded by another. Witness had been working in the printing room, and was in the club until nine o’clock. He returned to his rooms about half-past 10. There had been a discussion in the early part of the evening followed by singing.

    AN EYE –WITNESS TO ONE OF THE CRIMES

    A Hungarian has made a statement to the police that he was present at the Berner-street tragedy. He had, he said, gone out for the day, and his wife had expected to move, during his absence, from their lodging in Berner-street to others in Backchurch-lane. When he came homewards about a quarter before one, he first walked down Berner-street to see if his wife had moved. As he turned the corner from Commercial-road he noticed some distance on front of him a man walking as if partially intoxicated. He walked on behind him, and presently he noticed a woman standing in the entrance to the alley way where the body was afterwards found. The half-tipsy man halted and spoke to her. The Hungarian saw him put his hand on her shoulder and push her back into the passage, but, turning rather timid of getting mixed up in quarrels, he crossed to the other side of the street. Before he had gone many yards, however, he heard the sound of a quarrel, and turned to learn what was the matter, but just as he stepped from the kerb a second man came out of the doorway of the public-house a few doors off, and shouting out some sort of warning to the man who was with the woman, rushed forward as if to attack the intruder. The Hungarian states positively that he saw a knife in the second man’s hand, but he waited to see no more. He fled incontinently to his new lodgings. He described the man with the woman as about 30 years of age, rather stoutly built and wearing a brown moustache. He was dressed respectably in dark clothes and felt hat. The man who came at him with a knife he also describes, but not in detail. He says he was taller than the other, but not so stout, and that his moustaches were red. Both men seemed to belong to the same grade of society. The idea of a quarrel having preceded the murder is, however, generally discredited.

    HELP FOR THE VIGILANCE COMMITTEE

    In the East-end of London these two latest atrocities have caused a reign of terror. Feelings of hopelessness, terror and despair spread through the crowded populations on Friday morning. The people were chilled with fear. Coarse and brutalised as some men and women in East-end slums may be, their instincts are not so deadened but that crimes such as these strike them with dismay. The excitement during the whole of yesterday was almost frantic, and so it continued during this morning. Thousands of people are thronging the scenes of the murders and people are angrily crying out against Mr. Matthews, the Home Secretary, and against the brutality of the work of the police. They are indignantly discussing among themselves what they consider the proved ineptitude of the police. They point out that it is only after the murders are committed that the police come into play at all; that they are never at the right spot at the right moment; and that whatever their preparation and organisation may be there stands the indisputable fact that nothing is accomplished. Whatever justice there may be in these comments, it cannot be doubted that they are gaining currency readily, and that the whole of the East-end is growing bitterly angry. The population is feeling keenly the necessity of doing something. An adequate and efficient Vigilance Committee is felt to be the first necessity of the hour. Such a committee must be organised to do what the police have so far failed to do. There must be sentries in every lodging-house yard and at every street corner. Whatever detective capacity there may be in the East-end must be organised to track out the fiend, and render the recurrence of his crimes impossible. Such a Vigilance Committee would require to be generously subsidised. The expense would be great. Towards it THE EVENING POST will contribute 50 guineas, and the publishers will receive contributions for the same object.

    Tuesday, October 2, 1888

    EAST-END BUTCHERIES

    The Mitre-Square Victim – “Unknelled, Uncoffined, and Unknown”

    A NIGHT’S EXPERIENCE IN THE EMPTY AND RAIN-SWEPT STREETS

    Notwithstanding that the police have changed their tactics towards the Press, and now manifest every disposition to afford full and frank information, there is nothing of first importance to record to-day. No clue, so far as is known at the time of writing, has been obtained which promises to lead to the arrest of the murderer. All the men who have so far been arrested were released in the course of yesterday. Up to the present no further arrests have been made, and despite the strenuous efforts that are being made by the police authorities they seem as far off as ever from getting on the track of the murderer. Exhaustive inquiries made in the neighbourhood of Bow and Stratford at a late hour last night failed to elicit any reliable information as to the movements of “Long Liz” on Saturday night, and so far as is at present known she was last seen when leaving he common lodging-house in Flower and Dean-street at seven o’clock that evening. The remains of the poor woman who was first murdered and then mutilated with such atrocity in Mitre-square still lie at the Golden-lane mortuary awaiting identification. The body was viewed in the course of yesterday by a large number of persons, and considering the fact that there are marks which should render identification quite easy to those who were personally acquainted with the deceased, it is singular that so far she should continue unrecognised. Hopes, however, are entertained by the police that before to-day has elapsed the identity will be established. This is a most important matter, as a belief is entertained by the authorities that when once the name has become known it may afford an important clue in securing a description of the murderer. In the early hours of this morning a rumour was about in the East-end to the effect that cries of “Murder!” and “Police!” had been distinctly heard – as though proceeding from a woman – in the immediate neighbourhood of the International Working Man’s Club in Berner-street, the scene of the murder of “Long Liz.” The story, however was contradicted by the night inspector in charge at Lehman-street and our representative was unable to obtain any positive evidence in corroboration. Indeed, the report was contradicted by all the constables on duty in the vicinity. Towards midnight the streets in the district within the limits of which six murders have now been successively perpetrated without detection, began to assume a deserted appearance. The main thorough-fares were thronged with people as usual until the hour for the closing of the public-houses. The night air was keen and cutting, but this alone did not account for the remarkable absence of anything in the shape of pedestrian traffic, which heretofore has invariably continued until an advanced hour in the morning. The appearance of the whole district conveyed the only too palpable fact that at the present moment the East-end – and Whitechapel in particular – is empty of the unfortunate women who are accustomed to roam them during the night, and men were almost equally scarce.

    Wherever one went he had to listen to the same perpetual growl of the coffee-stall keepers that their trade had done: and when asked how the fact was accounted for the invariable reply was, “The murders.” In the small hours of this morning our representative plodded through street after street without coming across anyone save the solitary policeman on his monotonous round. The heavy, regular tramp of the custodian of the peace alone disturbed the stillness of the night. It was in all truth a weary round, this perambulation of Whitechapel, its main thoroughfares, and its back slums; and the heavy showers which fell at intermittent periods did not make the night less disagreeable. In the course of a night’s wanderings in these slums and backways our representative conversed with not a few of the men whom he found on duty. Almost to a man they pointed out the impossibility of performing all that was asked of them in the way of protecting the public. Again and again attention was called to open staircases in huge piles of modern dwellings erected for the artisan, and to dark, secluded corners, in every direction. It was a relief to emerge into broad, well-lighted thoroughfares, and finally seek the welcome shelter of the Leman-street Police station and the company of officers.

    ARRESTED AND DISCHARGED

    In the course of the night two men were arrested on suspicion, and brought at an early hour this morning to the Leman-street Police-station, where they are detained pending inquiries. The evidence, however, against the men is extremely slight, and they were discharged during the day. Crowds of people collected in Berner-street and Mitre-square, and the excitement of the last two days still continues. This morning numerous calls have again been made at the mortuary in Golden-lane, where the unidentified body of the woman who was found in such a mutilated condition in Mitre-square still lies. It was all to no purpose, however, and the matter remains as great a mystery as ever. The police are becoming more and more convinced that the murderer must have had a very narrow escape when he succeeded in getting away from the yard in Berner-street after cutting the throat of “Long Liz.” The theory now advanced is that he was actually in the yard engaged in the horrible work when the steward of the International Club, Mr Diemschutz, drove in in his trap and disturbed him, and that during the confusion that followed he succeeded in mingling with the members of the club as they rushed out in a body into the enclosure, and finally escaped unobserved before the police arrived on the scene.

    DETECTIVE REINFORCEMENTS

    A strong reinforcement of detectives from Scotland Yard and Lambeth arrived in Whitechapel this morning. The men are being appointed to various suspected districts to watch suspected houses and individuals.

    THE POLICE STILL ALIVE

    Information has just come to light in connection with the woman murdered in Mitre-square, to which the authorities attach considerable value. It appears that two City constables who saw the body at once recognised it as being that of a woman whom they had in custody some time ago on a charge of drunkenness. This woman, when charged, lived at a lodging-house in the neighbourhood of Fashion-street, Whitechapel, and the police are now making inquiries in that district to see whether such a person has been there recently. The constables, however, while being of opinion that the woman found in Mitre-square is the same as the one they had in custody, are not quite positive. The police are therefore endeavouring to find out whether the woman who was in custody is now alive, and if such is the case the affair so far will of course end.

    From all parts of the metropolis the police are in receipt of descriptions of suspected persons, and inquiries from people who have lost relatives and friends. One of the chief of those yesterday was an intimation from a woman that she had lost sight of her sister-in-law, a widow, named Cunningham, upon whose arm the missing sister’s husband had tattoed his initials, “T.C.”. Strangely enough this woman who was murdered in Aldgate had this mark upon her forearm so that the information appeared to have value. The woman giving the information accompanied a police-officer to a lodging-house in Dorset-street, Spitalfields, where one of the first persons who was seen was the missing and presumed-to-be-dead sister.

    With regard to the Berner-street murder, information has been received that the deceased was seen with a man during the evening of the murder, and the police are circulating his description. He is said to be 28 years of age, about five feet seven inches high, and of dark complexion. He had no whiskers, and wore dark clothes, having on a black felt hat, which was stained. A man, who gives the name of George Davis, and says he is an artist, and 38 years of age, is detained on suspicion by the police in consequence of some conversation he had with people in reference to the Whitechapel murders. When taken to the station he was wearing a black diagonal coat and a cricket cap.

    A BATCH OF RUMOURS

    Members of the International Club in Berner-street, including the steward, are all agreed that it was quite possible for the murderer to escape in the confused scene that followed the discovery of the body of “Long Liz” in the yard. None, however, seem to recollect having seen any stranger amongst those who were then present. The rumour that during the night cries of “Murder!” and “Police!” were heard by the inmates of the club-house proves to be without foundation, and this justifies the emphatic contradiction given to the report by the police from the first. Another rather widespread rumour proves to be equally inaccurate. It was to the effect that Sir Charles Warren, on visiting the yard on Sunday morning last, discovered some writing on the wall in chalk, which gave expression to some very objectionable sentiments of a religious character, and which was supposed to have been the handiwork of the murderer. This was alleged to have given such great offence that Sir Charles, fearing a disturbance in the neighbourhood, directed the writing to be washed out – an order said to have been promptly complied with by the police. Investigation, however, has proved the absolute fallacy of the story.

    FEELING IN THE CITY

    From inquiries this morning among prominent persons in the City, it would seem that satisfaction at the offer of a reward by the City Police is experienced on all hands. The refusal of the Home Secretary to allow any Government reward to be offered has given rise to very heated discussions and it is the general and popular opinion that the right hon. gentleman has adopted a very unwise policy. His conduct is spoken of in no measured terms, not only on the Stock Exchange, but in other influential quarters as it is suggested by some that it may have the effect of damping public ardour. On the other hand, it is asserted that popular indignation will be roused, and that the refusal of Mr Matthews will lead to most of the private bodies in the City and elsewhere adopting means of their own in the endeavour to unearth the murderer or murderers. So great is the interest and excitement becoming that on Thursday the Lord Mayor, who will preside at a meeting of the Common Council, will move that the Corporation do offer £500 in addition to the police reward. Mr Lewis Henry Phillips and Mr. Samuel Price, both Common Councillors, have motions on the agenda for that day, the first proposing that a reward of £250 be paid out of the City cash to any person by whose aid the perpetrator of the murders shall be convicted and the second proposing that a reward of £200 be offered for the same purpose. As, however, the Lord Mayor intends to propose a motion on the subject, those two gentlemen, who have shown such a deep interest in the matter, with withdraw their motions in favour of the Lord Mayor’s. It has been suggested that the Lord Mayor and the Stock Exchange were about to open subscription lists for the purpose of offering substantial public reward, but owing to the action of the Home Secretary we are informed that the Lord Mayor’s address will in all probability be carried out, and for the same reason nothing has yet been done in that direction on the Stock Exchange, one of the number significantly remarking, “What is the use if the Home Secretary is opposed to it.” Public interest in the matter is increasing, and the placards posted in prominent positions, announcing that the City Police have offered £500 reward, are eagerly read by the crowds of people, most of whom, from their conversation, fully approve of the actions of the authorities, and express the confident hope that the murderer will be brought to justice very soon.

    THE BERNER STREET VICTIM

    Story of a Ruined Life Unfolded to Coroner and Jury

    This afternoon the inquest on the body of Elizabeth Wall, alias Stride, found murdered in Berner-street, was continued at the Vestry Hall, Cable-street, before Mr. Wynne Baxter.

    Police-constable Harry Lamb, 253 H, said that on Sunday morning, about one o’clock, he was in Commercial-road, when two men ran towards him shouting. He went towards them, and they said “Come along; there’s been another murder.” He accompanied them to Berner-street, and they pointed out the yard. Seeing some people moving about, he ran, followed by another constable. On going into the gateway at No. 49 he saw something dark lying on the right-hand side, just inside the gate. He turned his light on, and found it was a woman lying here, with her throat-cut. He at once sent the other constable to the nearest doctor, and also sent a young man who was standing by to the station to tell the inspector. There were about 30 people in the yard when he got there and others followed him in. He did not see anyone touch the body. As he turned on his light to see if there were any more injuries than that to the throat the crowd pushed round him and he begged them to stand back, telling them that they might get some blood on them and get into trouble. He touched the woman’s face and arms, and found them only slightly warm. He then blew his whistle, and kept the crowd from going near the body. Deceased was lying on her left side, with her left arm partly under her, the hand being stretched forward. The right arm was across her breast. Her face was only five or six inches from the wall. Her clothes were not disturbed. There was a great deal of blood lying about. Some of it was in a liquid state and some of it congealed; that furthest away was still flowing. He could hardly say if blood was flowing from the wound at that time; it was a very small quantity, if any. Dr. Blackwell was the first doctor to arrive. He came about 10 minutes after witness got there, as near as he could remember. He could not say for certain, as he had no watch. Dr. Blackwell examined the body and the surrounding ground. The people in the yard were prevented from leaving until they had been examined, and everyone in the club in the yard was also examined. Their hands and clothes were examined. There were from 15 to 20 persons in the club room. He did not think anyone left without being examined, but possibly someone might have done so. The tenements in the yard were also examined. Most of the people were in bed, but they were made to get up. They seemed frightened and wanted to know what had happened. The dust-bin and other places in the yard were all examined. By this time Dr. Phillips had arrived. It was quite possible for anyone to have escaped from amongst the crowd, when he was there alone, but he should think it far more likely the man escaped before he (witness) arrived than afterwards. This place was not on his beat, and therefore, he had not passed the yard at all. It was on Police-constable Smith’s beat. It was not Smith who followed him to the yard, but the man on the fixed point at the corner of Grove-street and Commercial-road.

    In answer to the Coroner, Detective-inspector Reid said there were certain fixed points at which policemen remained from nine to five o’clock, and were then relieved by others who remained from five to one o’clock.

    Witness, continuing, said he thought that there was light enough in Berner-street for him to have seen anyone run out of the passage when he was on his way there if anyone had been there. There were three or four lamps in Berner-street, being lighted about as well as other side streets. They were all rather dark, but some additional lamps had been put up.

    Edward Spencer, 26, Fairclough-street, a horse keeper, said that on Sunday morning between half-past 12 and on o’clock he was outside the Beehive public-house, at the corner of Christian-street and Fairclough-street, with a young woman. They had been in a public-house in Commercial-road and remained until closing time, when they left and walked down Christian-street. They had been standing talking about 25 minutes, when two youths came running along shouting “Murder!” and “Police!” They ran as far as Grove-street, and turned back. Hearing what had occurred, witness returned with them to Berner-street. He went into the yard and saw the deceased lying on the ground dead. There were about 15 people standing there. Someone struck a match, but witness could see her before the match was struck. When the match was struck, witness lifted up her chin and disclosed the wound in the throat. The woman’s chin was still warm. Blood was still flowing from the wound. He did not look at any other part of her body. He did not notice anyone leaving the yard. There were too many people there for him to say whether anyone did or not.

    Mary Ann Malcolm, of 50, Eagle-street, Red Lion-square, said she had seen the body in the mortuary. It was her sister, Elizabeth Watts. She had not the slightest doubt about it. She saw the body on Sunday, and had some doubt about it then; but she saw it twice yesterday and had no doubt now. She last saw her sister alive on Thursday last at a quarter to seven. Deceased called upon her in Red Lion–street, Holborn, where witness was employed at tailoring. She gave deceased 1s, and a little short jacket, but it was not the jacket now on the body. They only remained together a few moments; and deceased did not say where she was going. Witness did not know where she was living, except that it was somewhere in the neighbourhood of Commercial-road, and that she was living in common lodging-houses. She had her doubts as to what deceased was doing for a living. She was sober on Thursday; but she was sometimes the worse for drink. It was unfortunately a failing of hers. Deceased had been married. She was the wife of the son of a large wholesale wine and spirit merchant, in Walcot-street, Bath. She believed he was now in America, his father having sent him away, on account of deceased having brought discredit upon him. She left her husband about 8 years ago. She had had two children. The cause of her leaving her husband was that he caught her with a porter, and sent her home to her mother with the two children. This little girl was dead and the boy was alive at a boarding school, with his aunt.

    The inquiry had not concluded when we went to press.

    Wednesday, October 3, 1888

    SATURDAY NIGHT’S CRIMES

    The Mitre Square Victim Identified – Story of her Last Days

    Both the victims of the arch-assassin on Saturday night have now been more of less satisfactorily identified. The body of the woman found nefariously mutilated in Mitre-square has been recognized as that of a woman named “Kelly,” who lived, like “Long Liz,” in a lodging-house in Flower and Dean street. John Kelly, who has been cohabiting with her, and who is a man of 40 years of age, has stated that the woman was married to a pensioner in the Royal Artillery, named Tom Conway, and had a daughter married to a gun-maker, living in King-street, Bermondsey. The letters “T.C.” were pricked upon her arm by Conway many years ago, and it was by those letters he identified her. Kelly adds that he was not aware the woman led a loose life. She worked as a charwoman, and he did odd jobs in Spitalfields Market. On Saturday last they had tramped back from the hop-gardens, having failed to do any good at hop-picking. They pawned a pair of boots to get a meal, and it was the last they had together. She then left him saying she was going to her daughter’s. He begged her to be back early, because they had been talking of the Whitechapel murders; but she did not return.

    WATCHING AT WHITECHAPEL

    This morning the large force of police and detectives drafted into Whitechapel are making a house-to-house visitation and leaving a handbill as follows: “Police notice to the occupier. On the mornings of Friday, August 31, Saturday September 8, and Sunday, September 30 1888, women were murdered in Whitechapel, it is supposed by someone residing in the immediate neighbourhood. Should you know of any person to whom suspicion is attached, you are earnestly requested to communicate with the nearest police-station. Metropolitan Police Office, September 20, 1888.” The officers are also in some instance leaving one of the notices for the occupier of each tenement. It will be observed that the offer of any reward is carefully ignored, though the walls are placarded with large bills offering rewards through the aid of private subscriptions.

    INQUEST ON “LONG LIZ”

    The Knife Produced in Court – Reminiscence of the “Princess Alice”

    This afternoon Mr. Wynne Baxter resumed the inquest on the body of Elizabeth Watts, the victim of the Berner-street tragedy, at the Vestry Hall, Cable-street, St.George’s-in-the-East.

    Elizabeth Tanner, deputy of 33, Flower and Dean-street, said she had seen the body in the mortuary, and recognised it as that of a woman known as “Long Liz,” who had lodged at the lodging-house on and off for about six years. She did not know the right name of the deceased, but knew she was a Swedish woman. She had said that her husband and children went down in the “Princess Alice”, which was lost on the Thames. Witness last saw her alive on Saturday afternoon. They were together in the Queen’s Head public-house, Commercial-street, where they had a drink, and returned together to the lodging-house. Deceased, who had no bonnet or cloak on, went into the kitchen, and that was the last witness saw of her. She was quite certain the deceased was “Long Liz,” both from her features and the fact that the roof of her mouth was gone. She had accounted for losing the roof of her mouth by saying that she was in the “Princess Alice” when it went down, and her mouth was injured. Witness knew she had one male acquaintance. She left a man on Thursday and returned to stay at the lodging-house. Deceased was a very quiet and sober woman. Sometimes she stopped out late at night. On Saturday witness paid her expenses for cleaning two rooms; but did not know if she had any more money. She had never said she was afraid of anyone, or that anyone had threatened to injure her. Before Thursday deceased had been away from the lodging-house about three months, but witness had seen her frequently. She said she was at work amongst the jewellers, and living with the man referred to. She could speak English and Swedish.

    Catherine Lane, of Flower and Dean-street, wife of a dock labourer, said she had lived at this lodging-house since February 11. She recognised the body in the mortuary as that of “Long Liz,” who lived in the lodging-house. The latter had been living with someone in Fashion-street for a few months, but returned to the lodging-house saying that she had a few words with “her young man.” Witness last saw her on Saturday evening between six and seven p.m. when she was down in the kitchen with a black bonnet and a long cloak on. When she went out she gave witness a piece of velvet to mind until she returned. It was a narrow piece of blue velveteen. Witness knew of no one who was likely to have injured her. She did not know that deceased had a sister.

    Charles Preston, of 32, Flower and Dean-street, said he was a barber, and lived at the same lodging-house. He identified the body as that of “Long Liz.” He last saw her alive on Saturday, when she had on the same jacket as she had in the mortuary. She had no flowers then. He also understood she was a Swede by birth, and was born in Stockholm, and had come to England in a foreign gentleman’s service. She had also told him that her husband went down in the “Princess Alice.” He had some recollection of her saying her husband was a seafaring man, and also that she had kept a coffee house in Poplar. She had always given him to understand that her name was Elizabeth Stride. She had never mentioned any sister, but said her mother was still alive in Sweden. He had heard her converse in a foreign language.

    Michael Kidney, of 38, Dorset-street, a waterside labourer, said he identified the body as that of the woman he had been living with. Her name was Elizabeth Stride. He had known her about three years, and she had lived with him nearly all that time. He had no doubt she was a Swede. She said at first she was born three miles from Stockholm, and came to England for the purpose of seeing England, but afterwards she said she came with a family in a situation. She said she was a widow, and that her husband had been a ship’s carpenter belonging to Sheerness. They had also kept a coffee house in Poplar. He went down in the “Princess Alice”. The roof of her mouth was gone. He last saw her on Tuesday in last week. They had no quarrel, but he left her on friendly terms. She often left him when she thought she would. During the three years she had been away from him at odd times, making up five months in all. There was no special reason on any of the occasions for her going away, unless it was drink.

    Having given his evidence, witness in a somewhat mysterious manner complained that he had gone to the police-station in Leman-street, and asked to be allowed to have the assistance of a trained detective, as he could catch the murderer, but they would have nothing to do with him.
    Inspector Reid: Were you intoxicated? - Witness: Yes.

    The Coroner: What information have you?

    Witness: I have heard something said which would lead me to get a good deal more information if I had police help.

    A Juror: You must have had special information to have wanted a detective.
    Witness: I had.

    The Cororner: Well, give us your information; we are all interested in catching the murderer.

    Witness: I believe I could capture him if I had control of the force. If I could place 100 men, the murderer would be caught in the act.

    Inspector Reid: But you have no information to give. If I placed the men, one of them would catch him in the act.

    Witness, in response to further questions, said the deceased was infatuated with a policeman before she married Stride. The witness, Mrs Malcolm, was very much like the deceased.

    Mr. Edward Johnson, of 100, Commercial-road, said he was assistant to Drs. Kaye and Blackwell. On Sunday morning from five to ten minutes past one a constable called at the surgery and witness accompanied him to the yard in Berner’s-street, where he saw the deceased. There was a crowd of people about, and some policemen. There was very little light. He found that the woman had died from a wound in the throat. He looked along the stream of blood, and found no mark of any one having stepped into it.

    Thomas Coram, of 67, Plummer’s row, said that on Sunday night he had been to Bath-gardens, Brady-street, and when in Whitechapel-road he found a knife on the doorstep of No. 253.

    The knife was produced. It was a long narrow-bladed knife, with a keen edge, with a handkerchief folded neatly round the handle. Both knife and handkerchief were stained with blood, It is a knife such as is commonly used in cookshops and by provision dealers. He gave the knife to a police-constable.

    Witness, continuing, said there were not many persons passing at the time he found the knife. It was light, and the knife could easily be seen. Between Brady-street and the place where the knife was he passed three policeman and about nine civilians.

    Police-constable Drage gave evidence as to receiving the knife from the last witness, and taking it to Leman-street station. The knife was smothered with dry blood. The handkerchief which was found round the handle was tied with string. The handkerchief was also blood-stained. It was half-past twelve o’clock. The last witness remarked to him, “When I saw the knife it made my blood run cold, you hear such funny things now-a-days.” A cab horse had fallen down there, a few minutes previously, and witness helped to pick it up. The knife would probably have been laid down during that time. He had been past the step a quarter of an hour, and he believed the knife was not there. About an hour previously he stood near the door, and the landlady let out a friend. The knife was not there then.

    Dr. Phillips gave evidence as to the bloodstains on the knife, and said that such a knife would inflict the wounds on the murdered woman.

    The inquest was further adjourned.

    Thursday, October 4, 1888

    THE ATROCITIES

    Exciting Chase and Capture in Aldgate of a Mysterious Personage

    SEVERAL ARRESTS AND MANY FALSE AND EXAGERRATED REPORTS

    The report which was so assiduously circulated in the course of this morning that (1) a watchman had been killed this morning in Shadwell; that (2) the police had captured the murderer; and that (3) he had turned out to be the Whitechapel assassin is absolutely false.

    Upon inquiry at the Commercial-street Police-station, in the district in which it was stated that the watchman had been killed, an EVENING POST reporter was told that no information had been received by the police of the alleged murder, and that certainly no arrest had been made in connection with it. At Leman-street Police-station and at the Shadwell Police-station – though close to where the capture was said to have been – the story is flatly denied.
    In the present state of public feeling the publication of such statements as these can have none but a bad affect. To give currency to the merest rumour is to mislead the public, and to state categorically that another murder had taken place within the notorious area of the last deed is to worse confound the confusion already existing there. Nobody knows to what the state of affairs there is drifting, and to strengthen the growing tendency to panic and its frequent sequel – a riot – is to sacrifice solid public interests to small private ends.

    RENEWED PANIC

    The principal thoroughfares in the murder area, which have now been for so long in a state of continued agitation, were last night once again plunged into a state of intense excitement by arrests and rumours of arrests of more or less significance.

    Shortly before midnight a story was circulating in Fleet-street to the effect that the unknown murderer had been surprised in the act of attempting one of his now too familiar outrages on a female in Union-street. The woman, so the tale went, was lured by “the monster” into a side street, but the gleam of a steel blade at once roused her to a sense of the danger she was in, and her loud screams brought to the spot a man and some two or three women who were said to have been watching the movements of the couple. The would-be-murderer, on hearing the rapid pattering of approaching footsteps, at once took to his heels, followed down the street by his male pursuer, who overtook him and knocked down the knife which he held out of his hand. The unknown one, however, darted into the road, jumped into a passing cab, and told the cabman, who seemed perplexed by the suddenness of the affair, to “drive wherever he liked.” Off went the cab, followed by the howling crowd that had, like magic, swarmed into the street. The police joined in the pursuit, and the vehicle was speedily surrounded and stopped, and its occupant captured and taken to the Leman-street Police-station. For a time this astounding rumour caused quite a stir. The news, however, seemed too good to be true, and inquiries made at Leman-street soon established the fact that the report possessed only a substratum of truth.

    EXCITING CHASE

    What really gave rise to the extraordinary narrative was this. Just after 10 o’clock a well-dressed man rushed out of the Three Nuns public-house in Aldgate, followed by a woman who, in a loud voice, declared to the loungers and passers-by outside that he had molested and threatened her. While he was thus being denounced to the crowd the stranger hailed a cab, jumped in, and proceeded to drive off. A hue and cry was at once raised, and the vehicle was followed by an excited and hooting mob, which rapidly grow in numbers. It was the universal belief that the murderer who has been terrorising the East-end was the occupant, and a hot pursuit was given. In a moment or two the cab was stopped, and a police-constable got in, secured the man and directed the cabman to drive to Leman-street Police-station. Here the prisoner was formally charged on suspicion. The cab was followed to the station by the girl who had raised the outcry. She stated to the police in the most emphatic manner that the prisoner had first accosted and molested her in the street, and that when she refused to accede to his proposals he threatened physical violence. This occurred in the Whitechapel High-street. While the woman was making her statement the prisoner was holding down his head and looking at the ground, and he never once attempted to make a denial. When, however, a man stepped forward to corroborate the girl’s story, he looked up angrily and denied the truth of the allegation with considerable emphasis. The woman was then asked if she desired to make any charge, but she declined to do so, and shortly afterwards left the station. It was, however, deemed prudent by the officer in charge to detain the man pending inquiries. He is an athletically-built, determined-looking fellow apparently about 40 years of age, with a dark moustache and clearly-cut features. On his pockets being searched no weapons of any kind were found upon him. He gave his name, but refused to state his address. When removed to the cells his attitude became impudent and defiant, and in the course of the conversation which he carried on with a slightly American accent while pacing up and down his place of confinement, the frequency with which he used the word “boss” was particularly noticed. Thus, turning suddenly to one of the inspectors who happened to be in the cell, he suddenly exclaimed, “Look here, boss, I don’t care.”

    The man is stated to have been slightly under the influence of drink when brought to the station. Throughout the night he maintained the attitude of defiance he had from the first assumed, and little or no information regarding his identity and the nature of his movements could be extracted from him. The man, having been detained at Leman-street Police-station all night, was discharged at half-past nine this morning, diligent inquiries by the police leading them to the conclusion that their prisoner was not the man wanted. But for the obstinacy he displayed after his arrest, it is probable that he would have been released long before.

    ANOTHER ARREST

    Between 9 and 10 o’clock last night another arrest was effected in the Ratcliff-highway by Sergeant Adams, of the H division. The officer in question hearing a woman screaming for help in the adjacent court, proceeded in the direction of the cries, and met a man who was evidently a foreigner leaving the place. The captive, who went quietly to the Leman-street Police-station, told the sergeant he was sailing from this country for America to-day. At the police-station the man told the inspector in charge that he was a Maltese, and willingly furnished his name and address. No weapons were found upon him. The inquiries that were instituted proving to be quite satisfactory, the unlucky foreigner was released in the course of the morning.

    A THIRD ARREST

    A third arrest was also made in Shadwell at a late hour last night, in the neighbourhood of Cable-street, and the man brought to Leman-street. Here, again, the man was able to give a very straightforward and satisfactory explanation as to his identity and other particulars, and there was no other to the police than to at once discharge him.

    The capture effected by Sergeant Adams at the Ratcliff highway gave rise in the course of the night to some wild and grossly exaggerated rumours. Not only was it currently reported that the murderer had been captured, but likewise that the police officer in securing him had been stabbed. The report even reached the headquarters of the City Police at Old Jewry, and although not much credence was attached to it, it was deemed advisable to send Detective-sergeant Child to Leman-street to make inquiries as to its accuracy. That officer, of course, soon discovered that the story was another of those canards that have been so freely circulating in the East-end during the last two days. It may be mentioned in connection with the Mitre-square murder, that the foreman of the sewer hands who was engaged at Aldgate in sweeping the streets and clearing away the refuse &c, in the early house of the morning, has stated most positively that at the time when the murder is supposed to have been perpetrated he was standing not more than 20 yards from the spot where the body was subsequently found by the constable and himself. He stated emphatically that he never heard any woman’s cries for help, nor did any sounds of a struggle reach his ear.

    At the hour of going to press, there had been no further development of the East-end tragedies. The police are still seeking information in various quarters, but have not yet succeeded in striking upon a clue.

    EARLY LIFE OF THE ALDGATE VICTIM

    Our Wolverhampton correspondent telegraphs:- Additional interest has been given in Wolverhampton to the London horrors, owing to the discovery that the victim of the Mitre-square tragedy is a native of that town, where several relatives still reside. A married woman named Croote, wife of Jesse Croote, a horse-dealer and an aunt of the woman named Eddowes, who lives in Bilston-street, Wolverhampton, have been interviewed. They state that the deceased woman, Kate Eddowes, was the daughter of a tin-plate worker, who for some years was employed at the Old Hall Works, Wolverhampton, as a tin-plate stamper. Her mother was a cook at the Peacock Hotel of that town, and the family went to London some years ago, where the father and mother died, leaving a family of 12 children. How many of them are living the relatives in Wolverhampton are unable to say. Mr Croote states that the murdered woman would be about 43 years of age. When she was about 20 years of age she ran away to Birmingham, where she became acquainted with an old pensioner who gained a living by selling pamphlets relating to his own history, and with whom she lived. She travelled with him, and assisted him to sell his pamphlets. Four or five years afterwards she suddenly appeared at the residence of her aunt, by whom she was raised as a child, in a destitute and dirty condition. Some years ago two sisters of the deceased also visited Wolverhampton. They were then residing in London, but nothing was heard of the deceased in Wolverhampton after her visit with the pensioner, except that she went to London. An uncle of the deceased lives in Birmingham. William Eddowes, a respectable working man, living at Wolverhampton, states that the deceased, when young, was given to keeping late hours, and that she was of a jolly disposition.

    THE ALDGATE TRAGEDY

    Inquest on the Body of the Woman Murdered in Mitre-square

    The morning, Mr Langham, City Coroner, opened the inquest on the body of Catherine Eddowes, alias Conway, alias Kelly, who was fond barbarously murdered in Mitre-square, Aldgate, on Sunday morning, at the City Mortuary, Golden Lane. Major Smith, Superintendent Fisher, and Mr Crawford, City Solicitor, was amongst those present.

    Mr. Crawford said he appeared for the City Police in this matter, for the purpose of rendering every assistance; and perhaps if he wished to put a question to any of the witnesses he would have permission to do so.

    The Coroner: Certainly.

    Eliza Gold, of Thrawl-street, Spitalfields, said she had seen the body of the deceased and identified it as that of her sister. Her name was Catherine Eddowes, and she was about 43 years of age. She had never been married, but had “lived with a gentleman.” His name was Kelly. It was four or five months since she saw her last. Deceased earned a living by hawking, and was a woman of sober habits. Prior to living with Kelly she had lived with a man named Conway. She lived with Kelly several years. She also lived with Conway some years and had two children by him. Witness could not say whether Conway was still alive. He was a pensioner, and used to go out hawking. She did not know if they parted on good or bad terms, or whether they had seen each other since they parted. She was quite certain the body of the deceased was that of her sister.

    In answer to the City Solicitor, witness said she had not seen Conway for seven or eight years. It was three or four years since she saw her sister with Kelly. They were then living on friendly terms. They lived at 55, Flower and Dean-street. From that time to seeing her in the mortuary she had not seen her.

    John Kelly, of 55, Flower and Dean-street, said he was a labourer, and earned a living jobbing about the markets. He recognised the body of the deceased. He knew her as Catherine Conway, and had known her for seven years. They had lived together during that time at a lodging-house kept by John Conway. She used to sell a few things about the street. He saw her last at two o’clock on Saturday afternoon in Houndsditch, and left her there on very good terms. The last words she said were that she was going to try to find her daughter Annie in Bermondsey. Annie was a daughter she had had by Conway. She promised to return by four o’clock and no later, but she did not return. On inquiring about he heard she had been locked up at Bishopsgate Police-station. An old woman working in the Lane told him she had been taken along Houndsditch by two policemen, but he did not go to the police-station to inquire, making sure she would be out in the morning, as it was in the City. He was told it was “a drop of drink” she was locked up for. He had never known that she went out for immoral purposes. He was not in the habit of drinking to excess – at least “only slightly.” When he left her she had not any money. She was going to her daughter’s with a view to trying to get some money. She was not in the habit of doing so, but went on this occasion because they had nothing to pay for lodgings with. It had happened that they had no money, and had been obliged to walk about the streets all night. It was to prevent this on Saturday night that she went to try to find her daughter. He did not know if she had seen Conway of late. He had never seen the man at all.

    In answer to the foreman of the jury, witness said deceased usually returned to the lodging-house about eight or nine o’clock; and in answer to the City Solicitor he said he had not heard with whom she had been drinking on Saturday afternoon. She had never stayed out all night, except on one occasion when they had a few words and she left him. They were not together on Friday night. Deceased slept in the casual ward at mile End Workhouse, and witness slept at the lodging-house. They were not together at the lodging-house any night that week. In the early part of the week they were both hop-picking in Kent. They had earned no money and walked back to London, arriving on Thursday, and sleeping in the casual ward in Shoe-lane. They were together all Friday until the afternoon, when he earned sixpence. He wanted her to remain with him, but she insisted on his going to the lodging-house with the money whilst she went to Mile End. He met her about eight o’clock next morning, and was surprised to see her so early. They pawned a pair of boots for half-a-crown on Saturday evening. She was quite sober when she left him. They spent the half-crown in drink and food, and when she left him they had no money. They parted without any angry words.

    Afterwards, in answer to Mr Crawford, he said it would have been Friday the boots were pawned. Deceased pawned them, and he stood outside in his bare feet.

    Frederick William Wilkinson, deputy of the lodging-house in Flower and Dean-street, also identified the body. She had lived with Kelly for about seven years at the lodging-house. They were always on good terms, though sometimes they had a few words when Kate was in drink now and again. She got a living by hawking and cleaning. She was a very jolly woman. They were always pretty regular in their payments. He had never seen Kelly drunk. Kate was in the lodging-house on Friday afternoon after returning from Kent. She went out in the evening and he did not see her again. As far as he knew she did not walk the streets at night, but always returned home between 10 and 11 o’clock; and he had never heard of her being intimate with anyone but Kelly. She had stated that she was married to Conway, and that her name Conway was “bought and paid for,” meaning that she was really married. The price of a single bed was 4d, and of a double bed 8d. They were away hopping four or five weeks.

    By a juror; if they had gone to the lodging-house on Friday he would have trusted them. He had done so before.

    Police-constable Watkins then gave evidence as to the finding of the body. He had, he said, been in the City force 17 years. On Saturday he went on duty at a quarter to 10. His beat included the perambulation of Mitre-square. It took him 12 or 14 minutes to get round his beat, and he had been continuously patrolling it from 10 o’clock from one o’clock. Nothing had attracted his attention during that time. At 1.44 he was in Mitre-square and saw the body lying in the corner. Deceased was lying on her back, with her clothes up above her waist. He saw that he throat was cut, and that she was eviscerated. A pool of blood was around her. He immediately ran across to Messrs. Kearle and Tonge’s warehouse. The door was ajar, and he pushed it open and called for the watchman, who was inside. The watchman came, and witness sent him for help. Witness waited by the body until help came. Dr. Sequier arrived very shortly, and Dr Gordon Brown arrived about two o’clock. When he went into the square just before seeing the body he heard no footsteps, and he saw no one at all in the square.

    Mr. F.W. Foster, 26, Old Jewry, produced a plan of the spot he had made, according to scale. Berner-street was three-quarters of a mile from Mitre-square. The direct route from Mitre-square in the lodging-house in Flower and Dean-street would be through Gouldstone-street (sic).

    The City Solicitor informed the jury that evidence would be forthcoming of the finding of part of the murdered woman’s apron in Gouldstone-street.
    Wilkinson, the deputy, recalled, produced his book and said he could not tell from it whether anyone took a bed at the lodging house about two o’clock. Six strange men slept there that night, but he could not say what time they entered. No questions were asked and no names taken. Over a hundred people slept there of a night.

    Inspector Collard gave evidence as to his being informed of the murder, and the appearance of the body as he found it lying. His description contained no fresh particulars. He produced the part of the apron found upon the deceased, which corresponded with the part found in Gouldstone-street. He also stated that a number of men were stopped and searched in the street without any result. A house-to-house inquiry had been made in the vicinity of Mitre-square to ascertain if any noise had been heard or any person seen.

    Dr. Gordon Brown, surgeon to the City of London Police Force, said that he reached Mitre-square at 18 minutes past two, and found the body as described by Police-constable Watkins, with the arms by the side, as if they had fallen there. All the lower part of the body was exposed, and destitute of underclothing. There was great disfigurement of the face; the throat was cut across. The intestines were drawn out to a large extent and placed over the right shoulder – a piece about two feet in length was quite detached from the body and placed between the left hand and the body, apparently by design. The lobe of the right ear was cut obliquely through. There was a quantity of clotted blood on the pavement on the left side of the body above the shoulder, the pavement sloping in that direction. The body was quite warm, and rigor mortis had not set in, showing that death had occurred within half an hour.

    Mr Crawford: Can you speak with certainty as to that?

    Witness: Yes, between 30 and 40 minutes.

    Continuing, witness said he looked for superficial bruises and saw none. There was no blood nor secretion on the thighs or lower part of the body. The (sic) was no spurting of blood upon the bricks or pavement around; and no marks of blood below the middle of the body. On Sunday afternoon he made a post-mortem examination. After washing the left hand carefully a recent bruise the size of a sixpence was discovered, and there were a few bruises on the right side of older date. The face was very much mutilated. There was a cut of about a quarter of an inch through the lower left eyelid, dividing the structures completely through. The upper eyelid on the same side had a scratch through the skin, near the angle of the nose. The right eye-lid was cut through for about half-an-inch in extent. There was a deep cut over the bridge of the nose, extending from the left border of the nasal bone down nearly to the angle of the jaw on the right side across the cheek. This cut went into the nasal bone, and divided all the structures of the cheek except the mucus membrane of the mouth. The tip of the nose was quite detached by an oblique cut from the bottom of the nasal bone to where the wings of the nose joined on the face. The cut from this divided the upper lip and extended through the substance of the gum over the right upper lateral incisor. About half an inch from the tip of the nose was another oblique cut. There was a cut between the right angle of the mouth, as if by the point of a knife, through the mucus membrane and extending for an inch and a half parallel with the lower lip. There was on each side of the cheeks a cut which peeled up the skin, forming a triangular flap of about one and a half inches. On the left cheek were two abrasions of the surface skin – the epithelium – and two slight abrasions of the epithelium under the left ear. The throat was cut across to the extent of six or seven inches. The superficial cut commenced about an inch and a half below the lobe of the ear side, and about two and a half inches below, and extended across the throat to about three inches below the lobe of the right ear. The sterno-mastid, or large muscle, was divided and the large vessels on the left hand side of the neck were severed. The larynx was severed below the vocal cords, at the middle of the critoid cartilage. All the deep structures were severed to the bone, the knife marking the vertebral cartilage. The sheath of the vessels on the right side was just open. The carotid artery had a pinhole opening. The left jugular vein was open to the extent of an inch and a half. The interior fibres of the sterno-mastodeed muscles were cut to the extent of half-an-inch. The cause of death was haemorrhage from the left carotid artery. On examining the abdomen he found that the walls were laid open from the breastbone to the pubes. The cut commenced opposite the enciform cartilage, the excision going under the bone upwards, not penetrating the skin over the sternum; it then divided the enciform cartilage. This was cut obliquely, showing that the point of the knife was to the left side, and the handle towards the right. Behind this the liver was stabbed as if with the point of a sharp instrument. Below this was another incision into the liver of about two and a half inches. Below this the left lobe of the liver was slit through for about three or four inches by a vertical cut. Corresponding with these were jagged cuts in the skin. The abdominal walls were divided vertically in the middle line to within a quarter of an inch of the umbilious. The cut then took a horizontal course for two inches and a half to the right side, then divided the naval on the left side, and made a parallel incision to the horizontal incision, leaving the naval on a tongue of skin. Attached to the naval was two and a half inches of the rectus muscle on the left side of the abdomen. The incision then took an oblique course to the right, shelving off in the same way as the cartilage. It divided the mons veneris, and went down to the right side of the vagina and rectum to half an inch below the rectum. There was a stab of about an inch in the left groin, done by a pointed instrument. Below this was a cut of three inches going through all tissues, and making a wound in the peritoreum of about the same extent. An inch below the crease of the left thigh was a cut extending from the interior spine of the ilium obliquely, and separating the left labium, forming a flap of skin upon the abdomen. On the right thigh were corresponding injuries, and other cuts. The abdominal injuries were made after death. The cuts were made by someone on the right side body, and kneeling below the middle of the body. The left kidney had been carefully taken out and taken away. Evidently it had been done by someone who knew where the kidney was. The womb was cut through, leaving a stump of three-quarters of an inch. The rest of the womb was absent, with some of the ligaments of the womb.

    The inquiry was not concluded when we went to press.

    Friday, October 5, 1888

    EAST-END TRAGEDIES

    A Quiet Night in Whitechapel – The Police Still Groping for the Monster

    For the first time this week a night has passed without any sensation in the murder district, and the result is a temporary lull in the excitement. It can only be regarded as latent, however. Any fresh arrest, or rumour of arrest, of a sensational kind is sufficient to arouse it in its full intensity, for signs of ineptitude against the population are by no means wanting, and the horrors of the week, eclipsing in sensationalism something that has gone before, are the sole subject of conversation. The scenes of the murders still continue to attract visitors, though the number has largely fallen off, every trace of the crimes having been promptly removed on Sunday morning last.

    The British Medical Journal says that the theory started by the coroner – not altogether without justification, on the information conveyed to him – that the work of the assassin was carried out under the impulse of pseudo-scientific mania, is exploded by the first attempt at serious investigation. It is true that inquiries were made at one or two medical schools early last year by a foreign physician, who was spending some time in London, in the possibility of securing certain parts of the body for the purpose of scientific investigation. No large sum, however, was offered. The person in question was a person of the highest respectability, and exceedingly well accredited to this country by the best authorities in his own, and he left London fully 18 months ago. There was never any real foundation for the hypothesis; and the information communicated, which was not at all of the nature which the public has been led to believe, was due to the erroneous interpretation by a minor official of a question which he had overheard, and to which a negative reply was given. The theory may be at once dismissed, and is, we believe, no longer entertained by its author.

    THE VIGILANCE COMMITTEE

    East-end voluntary Detectives – Another Letter from the Home Secretary

    The Whitechapel Vigilance Committee sends out nightly a body of supplementary citizen-police who, in the capacity of voluntary detectives, patrol the East-end streets on the chance of catching the murderer who has stricken the district with terror. An EVENING POST reporter went to the Crown public-house, Mile End-road, yesterday to ascertain what the committee is actually doing in assisting the police. The landlord, Mr Aarons, the promoter of the movement, introduced him to Mr Harris, the secretary, and two or three other members of the committee, who had met at headquarters to arrange the night’s movements.

    “Of whom, generally speaking does the Vigilance Committee consist?” was the reporter’s first question.

    “Generally speaking,” was the reply given by a member of the committee, who was by consent made spokesman of those present, but who declined to allow his name to be used, “consists of about 18 local tradesmen – men in this particular district. Mr Aarons originated the idea and brought us together shortly after the Buck’s-row tragedy, and before that of Hanbury Street. We were surprised at the apathy that prevailed in the district, and thought it would be a good idea if we could arouse the people from it. This, we thought, we could best do by starting a reward fund. That was our first idea. We thought it might act as an incentive to the Government. We started the fund on our own responsibility, our impression being that if a reward were offered the murderer would, in all probability, be captured, an opinion we still hold to.”

    “What action did you take?”

    “First we put down certain sums of money to meet necessary expenses. For instance, Mr Aaron (sic) gave £5, Mr Lusk £5 and other people sums from 10s to £1. We got about £20 altogether.

    “Have you collected money?”

    “No; the Daily Telegraph says it cannot see what good we can do, or what we can do beyond going round with the hat; but we have never gone round with the hat. Altogether we have received about £100, but had we sent the hat round we could have got five or six times that amount. There are some very rich people in Whitechapel, but what they think is that the Home Secretary should offer a reward. In Whitechapel we have had five murders in succession but no reward is offered; but immediately a murder occurs within the City limits there is a reward of £500 offered at once. Money has been sent to us by various people. Mr. Isaacson, M.P. for Stepney, sent us £10. Mr. Charrington, M.P. for Mile End, sent £6, 5s, Mr. Morris Abraham, of the Pavilion Theatre, £5. Mrs. Lane of the Brittania Theatre, £3; but there has been no systematic collection. The most generous offer we have had is that of the fifty guineas from the Evening Post.

    “Have you done any actual work in patrolling the streets and in organising patrols?”

    “Yes, as much as we could. Three or four of the committee, according to arrangement, go out every night, and in addition to that there are 12 men whom we have engaged for the work and who are out also every night. Those men are carefully chosen. Of course, we have had offers of help from people who come simply to advertise themselves, but we have only worked with men we know.”

    “Is it your intention to organise a more extensive system of night patrol?”

    “That depends upon circumstances and upon the amount of funds at our disposal. There must be small allowance for the expenses of men who are out all through the night. We have had several private detectives offer to help us for money. We could get any amount of that sort of help if we could only pay for it – a fact that shows that no matter how desperate things are in Whitechapel here, the people themselves are apathetic except in talking about the crimes, and that there are many who would seek to make a trade out of the circumstances.”

    “Quite so. Now what actual work did the committee perform, or cause to be performed, say, last night?”

    “Twelve men working under the supervision of the committee went out, and four of the committee, myself among them, went out afterwards to see what actual watching our people were doing. The men are known to the police, and we made several inquiries, and found that the police had met them in different parts, and knew they were about. We of the committee went out about midnight, and got to our houses again about half-past four. We walked all about, keeping a sharp look out, and went into some places you would scarcely think exist in this city. Some courts and alleys we penetrated were so ill-lighted that we were obliged to light matches to examine the ground. Why, in some of the places we went to last night, 20 murders like those of Sunday morning could, for all that we could see or imagine to the contrary, have been committed with impunity.”

    “Where are those particularly bad spots you speak of?”

    “Well, at the back of Leman-street for instance; in the little courts and alleys leading out of Spicer-street, to the neighbourhood of Brick-lane, and just about the Great Eastern Good Station. I would undertake to say that murder might have been committed in some of those spots last night as easily as any of the others have been committed.”

    “Then you do not think the police protection sufficient?”

    “Certainly not. The police do all they can. They are splendid fellows, and there is no body of men in the world like the Metropolitan Police. They are vigilant and intelligent. I know that now they are straining every nerve to do what is expected of them by the public; but there are not enough of them. The house is not large enough. They cannot cover every likely spot for the committal of a murder like these at one and the same moment. They do their very best; I have not the slightest doubt of that, but we want more of them. Now, when we got within the City limits last night there was a policeman about everywhere. You could not walk 30 yards without seeing a constable in uniform or a man in plain clothes. But in Whitechapel it was not so. Of course the men may have been hidden, but notwithstanding the force that has been drafted into the district, I was sure from our experience through the streets last night that the police are not numerous enough down here to prevent a repetition of the crimes.”

    LETTER FROM THE HOME SECRETARY

    “By the way, has your secretary received an answer to your last letter to the Home Secretary?”

    “Yes, it has just come to hand. Here it is.” It reads as follows:-

    A.49301

    “Whitehall, 3rd October 1888”

    “Sir, - With reference to your further letter of the 30th ultimo as to the offer of a reward for the discovery of the perpetrators of the recent murders in Whitechapel, I am to say that the Secretary of State sees no reason to alter his previous decision. – I am, sir, your obedient servant,

    “G. LEIGH PEMBERTON

    “Mr B. Harris, Hon Sec, Vigilance Committee

    “The Crown, 74, Mile-end-road, E”.

    THE INQUEST ON “LONG LIZ”

    The Supposed Murderer Seen Kissing his Victim in Berner’s Street

    Mr. Wynne Baxter resumed the inquest at the body of Elizabeth Stride, alias Watts, and commonly known as “Long Liz,” at the Vestry Hall, Cable-street, St George’s-in-the-East, this afternoon.

    Dr. Phillips said that since the last occasion he had examined the roof of the deceased’s mouth, and could not find any injury to or absence of any part of either the hard or soft palate. He had also examined the two handkerchiefs found upon the woman and found only fruit stains upon them. Neither in the hand nor about the body of the deceased did he find any grapes or connection therewith. He was convinced that the deceased had not swallowed either skin or seed of a grape within many hours of her death. The abrasion he had spoken of on the right side was only apparently an abrasion, for on washing it disappeared and the skin was found to have been uninjured. The knife produced on the last occasion he found to be a knife as is used in a chandler’s shop, and called a slicing knife. It had blood upon it similar in characteristics to that of a warm-blooded animal. It had recently been blunted and its edge turned, apparently by rubbing on a stone, such as a kerb-stone, it was evidently a very sharp knife before. Such a knife could have produced the injuries to the neck, but it was not such a weapon as he would have chosen for inflicting the injuries, and if his opinion as regarded the position of the body and that of the murderer was correct the knife would become an improbable instrument as having caused the incision. He had come to a conclusion as to the position of the victim and her assailant. He believed she was seized by the shoulders, placed on the ground, and that the perpetrator of the deed was on her right side when he inflicted the cut. He was of opinion that the cut was made from left to right, and therefore arose the unlikelihood of such a long knife having inflicted the wound described in the neck, taking into account the position of the incision. The knife had not a pointed end. It was a mystery how the right hand of the deceased became covered with blood. There were small oblong clots on the back of the hand and the wrists. Death had taken place when he arrived within an hour. The injury would only take a few seconds to inflict; it might have been done in two seconds. He had seen several self-inflicted wounds more extensive than this, but they had not usually involved the carotid artery. The inference was that there appeared to have been in this case, as in others, some knowledge where to cut, in order to produce death. There was a great dissimilarity between Chapman’s case and this. In Chapman’s case the neck was severed all round to the veterbral column, the vertebral bones being marked with two sharp cuts, and there had been an apparent attempt to separate the bones. In the Berner-street case it would not be necessary that the murderer would become bloodstained, because the commencement of the wound, the incision of the vessels was away from him, and the amount of blood would be away from him. There was no perceptible trace of any anaesthetic or drug having been used. The absence of noise was a difficult matter in this case, under the circumstances to account for; but it must not be taken for granted there was no noise. If there was an absence of noise, there was nothing in this case to account for it. She could not have cried after the cut, but why should she not have cried out when she was put upon the ground? His reason for saying the deceased was murdered when on the ground was the absence of blood anywhere but on the left side of the body, and between it and the wall.

    Mr Blackwell, surgeon, said the woman would die in a fainting condition from rapid loss of blood. Taking all the facts into consideration and more especially the absence of any weapon, it was impossible for it to have been a suicide. He had seen more severe cuts made by suicides. He was of the same opinion as Dr Phillips that although the knife might have inflicted the injury, it was an extremely unlikely one to have been used. A murderer using a round pointed knife would considerably handicap himself, as he would be only able to use it in one particular way. There were “pressure marks” upon the shoulders, indicating that a certain amount of force had been used. They were not defined bruises. It would be difficult to say how recent they would be. He saw no grapes near the body.

    Mr Sven Olsson, of Prince’s Square, St George’s-in-the-East, said he was clerk to the Swedish church there. He had seen the body in the mortuary, and recognised the deceased. He had known her for about 17 years. Her name was Elizabeth Stride, and she was the wife of John Thomas Stride, a carpenter. Her maiden name was Elizabeth Gustafsdotter. She was born at Forslander, near Gothenburg, on November 27, 1843. These facts he obtained from the register in the church. Her registry was dated July 19, 1866. She was then a single woman. Subsequently there was an undated entry that the woman had married John Thomas Stride. That was in the handwriting of the pastor, the Rev. Mr. Palmer. The hymn book, in Swedish, was given by him to the deceased last winter. He believed she married Stride in 1869: she had told him he was drowned in the “Princess Alice.” Witness assisted her at that time. He did not know if any fund was subscribed for the sufferers by that accident.

    The Coroner: I can tell you that there was, and that no person named Stride made application for help.

    Witness, continuing, said he had never seen her husband. There was nothing in the books to show where she lived, and he did not know. Two years ago she gave him her address as Devonshire-street, Commercial-road. She said she was doing a little work at sewing.

    William Marshall, said he lived at 64, Berner-street, and was a labourer at an indigo warehouse. He had seen the body in the mortuary, and identified it. He saw the deceased on Saturday evening in Berner-street about a quarter to 12, between Christian-street and Boyd-street. She was talking with a man on the pavement. He recognised her both by her face and dress. They were talking quietly. The man was of middle height. He had a black, small coat and dark trousers. He was a middle-aged man, wearing a round cap with a small peak, such as a water man would wear. He was about five feet six inches high, and rather stout; decently dressed. He did not look like a dock labourer, nor a sailor, nor a butcher – he was too respectable for that. He had more the appearance of a clerk. Witness could not see much of his face; but he did think he had whiskers. He was not wearing gloves, and had neither stick nor umbrella. He took more notice of them because he saw him “a kissing of her and cuddling her.” Witness heard him say to her, “You would say anything but your prayers.”
    Was his tone of voice like a clerk? – Yes; he was mild speaking.

    Did he speak like an educated man? – Yes; I thought he was.

    You did not hear her say anything? – No, she only laughed after he made that observation. They then went away.

    The inquest was again adjourned.

    Saturday, October 6, 1888

    THE MURDER AREA

    From Midnight till Dawn in the Slums of Whitechapel

    POLICE SUPERVISION IN THE EAST-END TESTED AND FOUND WANTING

    The night has been clear and cold. The last four hours I have spent in Whitechapel, and it is of my experiences there I shall now briefly write. At midnight Aldgate was well nigh deserted. Trade had almost ceased. The last bus and the last tram were started eastward, and beyond an occasional hansom and tradesman’s cart the road was empty. Of pedestrians there were surprisingly few. A small group had gathered round a constable outside the Three Nuns; there were two or three idlers about the Metropolitan Station; here and there a lounger stood at a lamp-post or street corner; a couple of women dressed in flaunting fashion hurried homeward; but beyond these there was no signs of life and nothing betokening a restless and disturbed population. Ahead there was a vista of lamps lighting up the shutters of the long-closed shops and showing the sweep of the train lines. The sky was of deep night blue, and studded with stars. A keen and cold wild prevailed. There was no sign of rain. The roads were hard, and the pavement white and dry. The scene was desolate and inhospitable. Once beyond the circus from which branches off Commercial-road, and some distance down the Whitechapel-road, this impression of hardness and desolation deepened. Whitechapel road is one of the widest, and in that respect one of the finest, thoroughfares in the world. At midnight it was one of the least frequented. Now and again a pedestrian passed along, and evidence of human activity could be seen in the neighbourhood of the yet-lighted windows of the public houses. But generally speaking this main roadway through one of the most thickly populated portions of all centres was empty. Even the wretched creatures who prowl the streets after dark and are to be found most numerously about the time for closing the public-houses had left it. There was scarcely a man, and not a woman, to be found. It seemed as if the thoroughfare had been shunned. Before the murders it was never so empty as this. Midnight is not a late hour for dwellers in the East-end to be out of their beds, but last night on the thousands upon thousands living to the right and the left of the road kept, as if by common instinct, within doors. The silence of a dead city reigned over it.

    At an appointed place in the Mile End-road I met an old East-end resident with whom I had arranged to pass the night in the streets. By this time all lights but those of the street lamps were out. In the main road we saw no policemen, but, my object being to view the back streets and alleys, discover the likely place for a repetition of the murders, and ascertain and test the vigilance of the police, we did not remain in the main thoroughfare long. At the corner of Stepney-green there was a constable on duty, but along the whole length of Whitechapel-road, there was nothing to suggest the presence of members of the force. If they were anywhere they were out of sight. We turned down St Peter’s–road and worked our way through the streets to Buck’s-row, the scene of one of the crimes. The streets were fairly lighted, but the slums, the tortuous, narrow thoroughfares, the winding alleys and the courts – but indifferently so. Throughout this district the police were fairly alive. One came upon them every few minutes, and they were not sleeping. They walked with a quicker, sharper beat than usual and turned their lanterns upon every nook and cranny. Passing through Northampton-street to Cambridge Heath-road we came into a rougher, dirtier, and more ill-lighted block of streets than we had been through. Here I put a practical proposal to my companion. I told him that I wished to test the efficiency of the police supervision of this locality, by going myself with him to some court or passage which would be likely to be chosen by a woman of the class selected by the murderer, and which would be a likely place for the undisturbed commission of crime, there to wait with him until a policeman passed the spot. He entered into the proposal. So far as we could see and know we were unobserved by the police. He took me down an ill-favoured street called Bath-street and through some other streets until we came to a break in the line of houses. A lamp was burning on the pavement near to this break, and looking into the darkness we could see a court of about 30 or 40 paces deep and 20 wide. Facing the court on the opposite side of the road was the opening of another street, so that had the court been adequately lighted, no one could have failed to observe what went on in it, whether the observer stood in the street to which it practically formed a cul de sac, or in the street running at right angles to it. As we reached this court the clock chimed half-past one. We had a full view of two streets, but saw no constable and heard no sound. We stepped into the darkness and went up the court. In the half light we could see that it was practically filled with costermongers’ barrows. We avoided these and went to the end and stood under the shadow of a doorway of a house. On the side of the court were the doors of two or three dwelling houses, and we could see as we passed that lights were burning in some of the windows. Opposite, above what seemed to be a wall, were two lighted windows. Here, we waited patiently but we saw nothing save the noise of an overflowing cistern and some movement in one of the houses hard by. Five minutes and 10 minutes went by and still there was no sign but aught but ourselves knew what at that moment might have been happening in that court. Then we heard the slow, heavy tramp of a constable. The footsteps drew nearer and nearer and then wore away until the sound died upon the air. We breathed again, lit cigars and smoked as comfortably in that court as if there was no policeman nearer than Charing-cross. The clock announced a quarter to two. A minute or so afterwards a constable came along and stood with his back against the court. He made no sign. We thought we might so stepped out. He came towards us, and by the time we met he had been joined by two other policemen, one a sergeant who came upon the scene uncalled for with a suddenness that surprised us. My companion was known, and the constables connected him with the assistance given by some of the inhabitants of Whitechapel in night patrol. After a few words on this subject we went our way. The three constables tramped up the street together, and before they got out of sight were joined by a fourth. They may have arranged to meet at the entrance to the court; that may have been the centre from which they worked their beats. I cannot say. But there is the fact that, with a man who is prepared to substantiate the statement, I stood in that court for 15 minutes. We struck matches, smoked, and conversed; we acted with a view of making just sufficient noise to attract the attention of somebody – the police, or the people who must have been within the lighted rooms – to the fact that there was someone in the yard. Yet no-one disturbed us. There was time enough and to spare for a murder similar to the others to have been committed in that court, and for the miscreant to have got clear away before the police came upon the spot. With the experience of that 15 minutes, it is impossible to say that the police patrol in that quarter, at least, is adequate to the prevention of further crimes. A more flagrant case I will relate presently.

    We resumed our tramp through the streets. No description can convey any idea of the dark and unfrequented alleys with which Whitechapel abounds. It is only by going through them at night-time when everyone is abed – or supposed to be – that one realises how honeycombed is this part of London with courts and slums that know no other light but that of a police lantern. When the neighbourhood is not in a state of terror as it now is a man could take a woman from the main thoroughfares to these wretched spots and there slaughter her with the greatest ease. Even now, when the locality is supposed to be swarming with constables, 30 murders a night might be committed, so well do the topographical peculiarities lend themselves to crime. During our round in the neighbourhood of St. Peter’s Church we met a young constable and accompanied him on his beat. Taking us down one terrace of tumble-down dwellings leading from the court, he showed us a long, narrow, noisome passage which no one who passed the place a dusk could have observed. Others there were as bad, and even worse, in the facilities they afford for immorality and crime. In Buck’s-row we stopped a few minutes by the black gates where one of the victims was done to death. There was no constable in sight. We walked through the street and out of it, and for aught we could tell another murder might have been going on.

    About half past two, we found ourselves in Mansell-street, near the City boundary. In passing through we noticed a great black void between two lofty warehouses called the Victoria warehouses. We felt for a gate, but there was none. Then we lighted a match just to see what sort of place it was. By the aid of the feeble light we found it to be an open courtyard, for which the large but unused iron gates had been provided. The yard was almost 50 paces deep by 30 wide. The darkness was Cimmerian. We thought it a good place to repeat our experiment of testing the efficiency of the police patrol, and accordingly took up our position on a doorstep at the extreme end of the court. It will scarcely be believed that we stayed there for 33 minutes, and neither saw nor heard a policeman. Yet that is the fact. The street was silent. Evidently we had not been seen to enter the court. The striking of the matches had not been seen, and no constable came through the street. If he had done so we were bound to have heard him, and he, in his turn, could scarcely save himself from turning his lantern on to the court, for the darkness was so thick and fascinating. What might not have been done in those 33 minutes? The wait was a weary and chilling one, and we gave it up in despair. Half an hour afterwards we went through the street again. There was then a policeman at the end of the court. I exchanged a few words with him, and was told that his beat took him from 10 to 15 minutes. And yet we sat in that place for 33 minutes, and might have been sitting there till day break undiscovered! That yard in Victoria warehouses is nothing more than a slaughterhouse. The proprietors should be compelled to close their gates or properly light that yard. This is the worst case of police inefficiency that came under our notice. It may be denied, but do (sic) denial will alter the experience of our vigils.

    One more feature of the night’s adventures, and I have done. I was in Dorset-street, Spitalfields. I have looked in at one of the lodging-houses there. A constable who came up said if I liked he would “show me something.” I followed him. He took me to a sort of open shed facing the street. “Look into that,” he said. I looked into it, but could see nothing but several costermongers’ barrows. He turned on his lantern. A horrible sight then met my eyes. Under the wheels of the barrows, in the barrows themselves, and crouched between the barrows and the walls of the shed, were twenty-nine wretched, loathsome women of the East-end streets sprawling one by the other. People in West-end squares and terraces may well ponder over this startling fact. The women had crawled into that shed for shelter from the chill October wind; and from it they go forth this morning at sunrise to tramp through the streets on the oft chance of obtaining the means wherewith to earn a crust. I counted the women by the aid of the constable’s lantern. Most of them were old and grey, and some of them were tipsy. Others, seeing a stranger to whom the constable was showing them as curiosities of humanity, moaned and whined. I spoke to these women, and got a chorus of answers. Each woman struck the note of her own misery. Their answers included every tone of despair and wretchedness. One of the women at least was of fair education. She spoke correctly and with refined accent. She said she “did needlework.” She was a woman in years; her age could not have been less than 50. She said she wished herself dead. She was homeless and hopeless, and work was not to be had. It was a sickening and saddening spectacle.

    BLOODHOUNDS TO THE RESCUE

    It is stated that Sir Charles Warren has been making inquiries as to the practicability of employing trained bloodhounds for use in special cases in the streets of London, and having ascertained that dogs can be procured that have been accustomed to work in a town, he is making immediate arrangements for their use in London.

    THE ALDGATE VICTIM

    The body of the deceased woman Kate Eddowes has been placed in a handsome polished coffin with oak mouldings. It has a block plate with gold letters with the following inscription:- “Katherine Eddowes, died Sept. 30th, 1888. Aged 43 years.” All the expenses in connection with the funeral will be borne by Mr Hawks, Berner-street, St Luke’s. The City authorities, to whom the cemetery at Ilford belongs, have arranged to remit the usual fees.

    THE EAST-END MURDERS

    False Alarms – Two Arrests – Worrying the Police – No Clues

    The police – both City and Metropolitan – have been in a state of dreadful uncertainty and expectation throughout the night. The horrible punctuality with which the murderer has within the past month or two perpetrated his hellish designs in the City and Whitechapel intensified the fears lest he should reappear in their midst with a horrible repetition of his previous enactions. The discovery of another mutilated victim, and, perhaps the loss of one of the many officers who are on the alert to explore the fiend red-handed, was by no means unexpected, but fortunately the coward – for coward he is – has held his hand for at least one night. A representative who visited the ill-fated area of Whitechapel from time to time throughout the night says the forces of the Metropolitan and City were during the whole night working with unusual energy, but unobserved by the usual pedestrian. Our detective system has during the past week been increased to an almost alarming extent by men drawn from the ranks, and who have been sent out in plain clothes to patrol the streets.

    MELANCHOLY WHITECHAPEL

    Between the hours of one and two this morning Aldgate and Whitechapel presented a most melancholy appearance. With the exception of a dozen or so poor homeless women who prowl about the neighbourhood for the same reason which proved such an advantage to the murderer in his recent exploits, the thoroughfares were deserted. Even the gas light in this particular district appears to favour the object of the murderer, and to afford him every facility in his nefarious business by refusing to light the streets sufficiently for one to observe a person, except as a shadow, on the other side of the street. This was in the main thoroughfare; what it was in the bye turnings one dreads to conjecture, far less experience. The utter absence of plain-clothes officers and detectives from the streets – or rather from view – was certainly surprising to one who knew they were about in large numbers. It is undisputed that the authorities have realised the necessity of catching the fiend in the act; therefore there is motive in concealing the detectives from view in the courts, alleys and squares which abound in this neighbourhood and which would be frequented by a person for the pretence under which he decoys them there. As an officer very reasonably remarked, “It is necessary to catch him on the job, otherwise, how can we gain a conviction? We have no witnesses and no evidence against him.” It is remarkable to find that it is a general belief among the police that should they catch him in the act he will undoubtedly endeavour to make “short work” of them. They believe him to be a very strong and powerful man. Our “vigilance force” are working with a secrecy equal to that of the trained forces, and it is satisfactory to find that withal both the professionals and amateurs express a determination to track the murderer down, no matter what bars their progress, and not a few of them favour the worst kind of lynch law for him when captured. This expresses the undoubted feelings of our policemen. The excitement and indignation, coupled with the dread of another tragedy, has by no means abated in the district.

    A BUSY INSPECTOR

    Last night was an extremely quiet night as regards new incidents in the murders. Only two arrests were reported since last evening, and these turned out to be false alarms, but nevertheless it is essential they they (sic) should be recorded, in order to acquaint the public of the numerous groundless assertions which are afloat, and not only cause annoyance and inconvenience to the Press, but to the police authorities. The first of these rumours came from Islington, it being reported that a man had been apprehended in Packington-street, Essex-road, and had been conveyed to the Upper-street, Police-station, where he was detained. An inquiry here elicited the fact that a man had been arrested in Packington-street, but certainly not in connection with the murders. He was seen by the (sic) one of the plain-clothes officers, who was on the look-out for the East-end suspects, to have pockets more than usually bulky, and as he was not able to satisfy the officer he was taken to the police-station. His pockets were filled with card-cases. The second rumour was even worse than the one cited above, for it had absolutely no foundation; but the details of the apprehension are, under the circumstances, decidedly amusing as a clever concoction. It appears that a few minutes before midnight a cab containing two men and a woman was seen to pass along Brick-lane, not one of the best thoroughfares in Spitalfields, and stop in a dark portion of the lane. The two men bore the body of this “unconscious” woman from the cab, and deposited it on the pavement, afterwards re-entering the vehicle and driving rapidly away. While the police were attending to the unconscious woman one of the men was observed to return, and was given into custody, and was conveyed to the Commercial-street Police-station. The last paragraph robbed the story of its apparent genuineness but as they are all described as the “Whitechapel murderer” it was necessary to make the necessary inquiry. It transpired, however, that no arrests had been made, but the scene supposed to have been provoked by the “Whitechapel murderer” was nothing more than a drunken brawl, the participators in which voluntarily went to Commercial-street Police-station to have their dispute settled by the inspector. Apart from these two instances, the police at Whitechapel continue to receive telegraphic information from all parts of London and the suburbs, and also from the provinces, of persons answering the public descriptions of the supposed assassins. In some cases – for instance, those reported from Hackney, Woolwich and Shadwell during the night – the suspects not only answered the police descriptions, but brandished knives, with the exclamation “I’m Jack the Ripper,” but, when a stick is raised, the men are said to have taken to their heels. “These cases,” remarked the inspector, “all have to inquired into. There are so many of them they are sickening.”

    STILL IN THE EAST END

    The police acknowledge that they have practically no clue, but they feel confident that the murderer is still in the East-end, and certain suspected neighbourhoods are under observation. It is pointed out that the murderer, after the commission of his last crime, undoubtedly proceeded from Mitre-square, by way of Church-passage, Duke-street, Hounsditch, Gravel-lane, and Stepney-lane, to Goulston-street, at which spot all trace appears to have been lost of him. In this neighbourhood he evidently entered one of the notorious houses which cannot be entered without elaborate arrangements and a certain amount of danger to the police. It would take about 10 minutes for a person to get from Mitre-square to the neighbourhood, so that the murderer was well away from the scene, and perhaps safely under cover, before Constable Watkins obtained even medical assistance after the discovery of the body. This is a point put forward by the police in favour of bloodhounds being employed, as it is suggested that had a hound been brought on the scene immediately, there would have been little if any chance of the murderer evading justice as long as he has. The prevailing opinion among the police now, although the daring which has characterised his previous acts shake their theories, is that he will keep in hiding for some time until the excitement abates or the precautions are relaxed; or that he will find a new field for his operations in another part of the town.

    No further arrests had been made at 7 o’clock this morning, neither had anything been discovered which is likely to reveal the whereabouts of the murderer.

    Monday, October 8, 1888

    THE EAST-END MURDERS

    An arrest in Baker’s-row after Desperate Resistance

    A man was arrested at Baker’s-row, Whitechapel, this afternoon, after a desperate resistance. He was at once conveyed to Bethnal Green Police-station, and was charged with being concerned in the recent murders.

    On Saturday evening the excitement in Whitechapel was intense. Everyone – including the police appeared to be under the impression that the night would not pass without some fresh discovery; and every nerve was strained to keep a close watch. The efforts of the police were aided by a large contingent of the amateur element, and in the neighbourhood of “shady” corners the inhabitants helped by making the periodical visits of inspection. Early in the headquarters of Leman-street, Whitechapel, presented a scene of most extraordinary character. The large yard was completely filled with constables, drawn from almost every division; and, in addition to these, hundreds of plain-clothes men were present. The former were inspected by Mr. Superintendent Arnold, and at once told of their respective beats, with the injunction “to keep a sharp look out.” As regards the detective force, they patrolled the nooks and corners of the locality in question, and were particularly observant of the doings of the unfortunate women who were strolling about, apparently without a home, or the few pence required to pay for a lodging. At midnight the last batch of constables were despatched to their allotted posts, including the scenes of the recent murders.

    During the night several persons were arrested on suspicion, owing to being pointed out as resembling the murderer; but in each case, after brief inquiry, they were set at liberty. No definite description of any person has yet been circulated, so that as far as identification is concerned, there is little or nothing to go upon.

    The Home Secretary has addressed the following letter to the President of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee: -

    Whitehall, October 6, 1888

    “Sir, - The Secretary of State for the Home Department has had the honour to lay before the Queen the petition signed by you , praying that a reward may be offered by the Government for the discovery of the perpetrator of the recent murders in Whitechapel, and he desires me to inform you that, though he has given directions that no effort or expense should be spared in endeavouring to discover the person guilty of the murders, he has not been able to advise Her Majesty that that in his belief the ends of justice would be promoted by any departure from the direction already announced with regard to the proposal that a reward should be offered by the government – I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

    R. LEIGH PEMBERTON

    FUNERAL OF THE ALDGATE VICTIM.

    The funeral of Catherine Eddowes, the victim of the Mitre-square murder took place this afternoon in Ilford, Essex, where the City of London cemetery is situated. The expenses of the funeral were borne entirely by private citizens. The corpse, decently laid in a private coffin, with the name and age of the deceased engraved thereon, was removed at half-past one from Golden-lane mortuary. Thousands of people lined the streets in the vicinity of the mortuary evincing much sympathy. The cortege passed the junction of Osborn-street and Commercial-street at 2.20, and the crowds were so dense that a force of police had to direct the traffic. The coffin, upon which wreaths had been placed, was borne on an open hearse, followed by two carriages. At the rear of the procession the extraordinary spectacle was witnessed of a wagonload of women whose attire was far from appropriate to the occasion and their appearance was freely commented upon by the onlookers. The waggon was so crowded that even the driver’s seat was occupied.

    A SUSPICIOUS INCIDENT

    Mr George Lusk, of Alderny-street, Globe-street, Mile end, has given information of a suspicious incident which befell him on Thursday afternoon last. A stranger, who called at his private residence shortly after four o’clock, and who was informed that Mr. Lusk was not at home, appears to have traced the President of the Vigilance Committee to an adjacent tavern. Having manifested great interest in the movements of the volunteer police, he sought an interview in a private room, but owing to the forbidding appearance of the visitor, Mr. Lusk seems to have preferred the comparative publicity of the parlour. The conversation had scarcely begun, when Mr. Lusk, who was about to pick up a pencil which had dropped from the table, says he noticed the stranger “make a swift though silent movement with his right hand towards his side pocket.” Fearing that his conduct was observed, it is added, the man asked to be directed to the nearest coffee-house, and forthwith proceeded to an address in Mile End-road with which he was supplied. Although Mr. Lusk followed without loss of time, he was not quick enough for his visitor, who abstained from visiting the coffee-house, and has not been heard of since. The man is described as between 30 and 49 years of age, about 5ft. 9in. in height, of florid complexion, with husky brown beard, whiskers and moustache. In the absence of further evidence, it is impossible to say whether a personal injury was actually in store for the head of the “Vigilants,” but the ease with which the man escaped has awakened the members of the committee and their colleagues to an increased sense of the difficulty of the task they have in hand.

    JACK THE RIPPER AGAIN

    The Central News is responsible for the following:- “A startling fact has just come to light. After killing Katherine Eddowes in Mitre-square, the murderer it is now known, walked to Goulston-street, where he threw away the piece of the deceased woman’s apron upon which he had wiped his hands and knife. Within a few hours of this spot he had written upon the wall, ‘The Jews shall not be blamed for nothing.’ Most unfortunately one of the police officers gave orders for this writing to be immediately sponged out, probably with a view of stifling the morbid curiosity which it would certainly have aroused. But in so doing a very important link was destroyed, for had the writing been photographed a certain clue would have been in the hands of the authorities. The witnesses who saw the writing, however, state that it was similar in character to the to the letters sent to the Central News and signed ‘Jack the Ripper,’ and though it would have been better to have clearly demonstrated this by photography, there is now every reason to believe that the writer of the letter and postcard sent to the Central News (facsimilies of which are now to be seen outside every police station) is the actual murderer. The police, consequently are very anxious that any citizen who can identify the handwriting should without delay communicate with the authorities. Another communication has been received from the writer of the original ‘Jack the Ripper’ letter, which, acting upon official advice, it has been deemed prudent to withhold for the present. It may be stated, however, that although the miscreant avows his intention of committing further crimes shortly, it is only against prostitutes that his threats are directed, his desire being to respect and protect honest women.”

    Tuesday, October 9, 1888

    THE EAST-END MYSTERIES

    No Clue Obtained by the Police - Opinion of a Pinkerton Detective
    Upon inquiry at the East-end Police Station at four o’clock this morning it was stated that no arrests had been made during the night. The streets in the vicinity of the recent tragedies are still patrolled by the police and detectives in augmented numbers, and the closest surveillance is maintained on suspected localities. Last night the number of amateur detectives at work did not seem as great as at the latter end of the week; but the ordinary detective staff was represented sufficiently to keep a close watch upon all suspected person who might be moving about at untimely hours without ostensible reason. As on previous nights the locality was almost deserted by the class of persons for whom the murderer has selected his victims.

    ARREST BY A “VILIGANT”

    Last night a member of the East-end Vigilance Society took into the King’s Cross-road Police Station a respectably dressed man on suspicion of being the Whitechapel murderer. The captor alleged that he had watched the man for some time and that his movements were of a suspicious character. The police of the H division were communicated with. The man gave the name of George Smith, and supplied an account of his movements on the night of the murders. This being found to be correct, he was discharged from custody.

    OPINIONS OF AN AMERICAN EXPERT

    Mr Knowles, formerly a member of the Pinkerton private inquiry combination of New York, whose services are frequently retained by the Government of the United States, and subsequently a member of the detective department of the Glasgow police, is convinced that the Whitechapel murderer is insane, because of the absence of motive and of the character of the mutilations which he perpetrates. That he is a coward is evidenced by the class of victims chosen, and the fact that these women must have been in a state of drink at the time of their death. The manner in which the culprit has eluded notice, and the way in which he guarded against suspicion both before and after the murders, show that he is possessed of considerable intelligence, probably the cunning of the lunatic. The assassin must have means at his command by which he is enabled to change his abode, personal appearance, and dress at pleasure. Time has been wasted in looking amongst the rags of Whitechapel for him, and the step which should have been taken at the outset was to have sent information to every railway station and port within reasonable distance of London immediately after the first murder was reported. By this means every passenger out of the City on the Sunday would have been scrutinised. The police lost their opportunity at the time of the Hanbury-street murder. Had they adopted the same precautions as prevail now the man would have been captured. The murderer, Mr Knowles believes, is not now in the East of London, and, the hue-and-cry being so great, he doubts his presence in England. Great precautions are necessary, as during a period of panic the imitative facility is strong, as already shown by the commission of a similar crime at Gateshead. There are circumstances which justify the inference that the Whitechapel murderer is respectably connected, living alone in chambers, or possibly with a relative – and if the latter it cannot be expected that a mother or sister would hand him over to justice, but would do all she could to get him out of the country. Ten or twelve years ago a case occurred in America in which two children, both girls under fourteen, were found murdered. They were enticed from the streets at different times and their throats were cut. One body was thrown into a garden and the other into a piece of waste ground. The author of the crime could not be discovered. A little girl was sent out as a decoy, and was watched meanwhile by detectives. For days nothing occurred, but at last a man to whom suspicion pointed drew near. The success of the stratagem was marred, however, by the fear of the detectives that he might kill the girl before their eyes, and they dared not hide themselves. The individual suspected made off, but he was “shadowed,” and his address and connections were discovered. Owing to the political system prevailing the chief of the police could not be induced to issue a warrant, as legally there was absolutely no evidence. In England the man would have certainly been detained for inquiries. Every effort to interview him failed, and his family sent him out of the country, it is alleged, to avoid further inquiry. Mr Knowles thinks that the English detective system might be reinforced by a small body of well-paid men of good education and proved intelligence, and of not more than 5ft. 7in. in height, as a person over that stature attracts attention.

    Thursday, October 11, 1888

    THE ALDGATE TRAGEDY

    The Writing on the Wall – Extraordinary Evidence at To-Day’s Inquest
    This morning at the court of the City coroner, the inquest was resumed by Mr. Langham, coroner for the City of London, on the body of Catherine Eddowes, who was found murdered and mutilated on the morning of Sunday, September 30, Mitre-square, E.C. Mr H.H. Crawford, the City solicitor, again appeared to watch the case for the City Police, Inspector McWilliam, of the detective department of the City Police, was also present, with Major Henry Smith, Assistant Commissioner of the City Police, and Superintendent Foster.

    Charles Sequeira of 34, Jury-street, Aldgate, surgeon, was the first witness, and said he was called on the morning of September 30, and was the first medical man to arrive on the scene of the murder. He was there at five minutes to two. He saw the position of the body, and agreed with Dr. Gordon Brown as to the position, having heard that gentlemen’s evidence at the last examination. He entirely agreed with the whole of that evidence.
    In reply to Mr. Crawford, witness said he knew the locality and the position of the lamps. The part of the square in which the body was found was probably the darkest part; but there was sufficient light for the injuries found on the body to have been inflicted without the aid of additional light. From what he saw he formed the opinion that the perpetrator had no particular design upon any particular organ. Judging from the injuries indicated he did not think the perpetrator was possessed of great anatomical skill.

    I am not now speaking of the woman. Would you have expected to find the clothes of the murderer be covered with blood? – Not necessarily.
    How long would you think life had been extinct? – A very few minutes only; probably not more than a quarter of an hour, in consequence of the condition of the blood.

    In response to a request by Mr. Crawford.

    Wm. Sedgwick Saunders, 13, Queen-street, doctor of medicine, and Fellow of Institute of Chemistry, of the City of London was called. He said he received the stomach from Dr. Gordon Brown, carefully sealed with his own private seal.

    Mr. Crawford: I believe Dr Saunders, that you were present at the post-mortem:- I was, at the whole of it.

    Do you agree with Dr. Gordon Brown and Dr. Sequeira that the wounds were not inflicted by one possessing great anatomical skill? – I do.

    And do you agree that the perpetrator of the deed had no particular design on any particular organ? I do – no internal organ.

    Annie Phillips, of 12, Dilston-road, Southwark Park-road, the wife of a lamp black packer, was the next witness.

    The Coroner: Are you the daughter of the deceased? – Yes

    Was the deceased married to your father? – She always told me she was, but I have never seen the marriage lines. My father’s name was Thomas Conway.

    Have you seen him lately? – Not for the last 15 or 19 months.

    What calling did he follow? – He was a hawker.

    Do you know what became of him? – No.

    Did he leave you on good terms? – No; not on very good terms.

    Have you since seen or heard of him by letter or otherwise? – No.

    Was he a sober man? - Yes, he was a teetotaller.

    Did he live on bad terms with your mother? – Yes, because she used to drink.

    Have you any idea where you father is today? - I have not the least idea.

    Can you tell me the reason why he ceased to live with your mother? - Entirely on account of her drinking habits.

    Your father with in the 15th Royal Irish? - So I have been told.

    Was he pensioned? – He had been a pensioner since I was 18. I am 23 now.

    How long ago had he left your mother? - Between seven and eight years.

    Were you in the habit of seeing the deceased after she left your father? – Yes.

    Did she ever apply to you for money? – Yes, frequently.

    By the Foreman and the Jury: Her father left her mother between 15 and 18 months ago. Her father knew her mother was living with a man named Kelly.

    Mr Crawford: Is it not a fact that your father is living with your two brothers? – Yes.

    But you don’t know where they are living? – No, I do not.

    And cannot give the police the slightest clue? – Not the slightest.

    John Mitchell, detective-sergeant of the City of London Police, was the next witness. Examined by Mr Crawford, he said he had, with other officers, endeavoured to find the father and brothers of this last witness, but without success. He had found a pensioner named Conway belonging to the 15th Royal Irish, but he was not the Thomas Conway in question. With other officers he had used every endeavour, and every inquiry possible had been made with a view of tracing the murderer.

    Dr. Gordon Brown was recalled.

    Mr. Crawford: The theory has been put forward that the deceased was brought where she was found in a murdered state: - I do not think it could have been from the blood on the place. I have no doubt in my mind that the murder was committed on that spot.

    Police-constable Lewis Robinson, 931 A, was called and deposed that he was on duty in High-street, Aldgate, at 8.30 on Saturday, the 24th, and saw a crowd of persons outside 129, Aldgate. He saw the woman there, and since recognised her has the deceased. She was drunk, lying on the footway. He turned round and asked the people standing by whether any one knew her, but got no answer. He then picked her up and carried her to the side by the shutters. She fell down again. He got assistance from another police-constable, and took her to the Bishopsgate-street Police station. When asked her name at the station, she replied “Nothing”. She was put in a cell. No one appeared to be in her company when she was first found.

    By Mr Crawford: The latest time he saw the deceased was about 10 minutes to nine in the police cell. She was then wearing an apron.

    The apron was produced in two pieces, ragged and blood stained.

    Witness resuming, said that to the best of his knowledge that was the apron the woman was wearing.

    By the Jury: the woman smelt very strongly of drink, but was not seen and certified by the doctor to be drunk.

    James Byfield, station-sergeant at Bishopsgate-street Police-station said that at a quarter to nine on the evening of the 29th of last month the deceased was brought in very drunk. She was taken to the cells, and stayed there till one o’clock in the morning. He discharged her at one o’clock. She gave as her name and address Mary Ann Kelly, 6, Fashion-street, Spitalfields. In answer to a question he put to her she said she had been hopping.

    By the jury: She has nothing to eat while in the cells. It would be possible for anyone brought in at quarter to nine to be released at one o’clock perfectly sober.

    Police Constable Hutt, 968 City, and gaoler at Bishopsgate-station, deposed that at a quarter to 10 on Saturday 29, he took over the prisoners, among them the deceased. He visited them several times until five minutes to one on Saturday morning. The inspector was out visiting, and he was directed by Sergeant Byfield to see whether there were any prisoners fit to be discharged. He found the deceased sober, and she was discharged by the station-sergeant. He pushed open the swing door leading to the passage and said, “This way, missus.” She passed along the passage to the other door. He said to her, “Please pull it to.” She said, “All right; goodnight, old ****.” She pulled the door within half a foot of closing it, and he saw her turn to the left. That would lead towards Houndsditch.

    By the Jury: Whether prisoners should be discharged in the discretion of the inspector or highest authority in the station at the time. During his early visits to the prisoner, she was asleep, but about 12:30 she asked when she was going out, and said she was quite fit to take care of herself.

    By Mr. Crawford: She left the station at one o’clock, and in his opinion was capable of taking care of herself. She made some observation in the station yard. About two minutes before one, as she was brought out of the cell, she asked what time it was. He replied “Too late for you to get any more drink.” She said, “What time is it?” He said, “Just on one.” She said, “I shall get a fine hiding when I get home then.” He said to her, “And serve you right; you have no right to get drunk.”

    George James Morris, watchman for Messrs. Kealy and Tonge, tea merchants, Mitre-square, deposed that he went on duty at seven o’clock on the 20th. At about a quarter to two Police-constable Watkins knocked at this door, which was slightly ajar. He opened the door wide, and saw a constable who said, “For God’s sake, mate, come to my assistance.” Seeing the constable was rather agitated, he thought he was ill. He said, “Stop while I get my lamp.” He got his lamp and asked the constable what was the matter, and the constable said, “Oh, dear, there’s another woman cut up to pieces.” Having been a police-constable himself, he knew what assistance was required and asked no further questions.

    Joseph Lawende, of 45 Norfolk-road, Dalston, a commercial traveller, deposed that on the night of the 29th he was at the Imperial Club, Duke-street, with Mr Joseph Lever and Mr. Harry Harris. It was raining, and they could not get home, and I sat inside the club until half-past one and then left. They had seen a man and a woman at the corner of Church passage. Mr. Harris and Mr. Lever waited together, and he a little further away. The man and woman were in Church-passage in Duke-street, leading to Mitre-square. The woman was waiting with her fact towards the man, and he (witness) only saw his back but she had her hand upon his chest. He could not see her fact. The man was taller than the woman. She was dressed in a black jacket and black bonnet. He had seen articles at the Bishopsgate Police-station taken from the murdered woman and believed they were the same he saw.

    The Coroner: Can you tell me what sort of man he was? - He had a cloth cap with a cloth peak of the same material.

    Mr Crawford here interposed, and said he had a special reason, as representing the police, for asking that further details should not be given as to the appearance of the man, unless the jury greatly wished it.

    The jury said they did not.

    The Coroner (to witness): You have given a description of the man to the police? – Yes.

    Would you know him again? – I doubt so.

    Examined by Mr Crawford: Did you hear anything said by the man or woman? Not at all.

    Did either appear in an angry mood? – No.

    Was there anything in their movements which struck your attention? – No.
    All you say is you saw her place her hand upon his breast; was that to push him away? – No; they stood very quietly.

    Joseph Hiram Levy, 1 Hutchinson-street, Aldgate, a butcher, gave confirmatory evidence.

    Police-constable Alfred Long, 254 A, deposed that he was on duty in Goldstern-street (sic), Whitechapel, on 30th last month. About 2.55 a.m. he found a portion of a woman’s apron with recent bloodstains upon it, lying in the passage leading to the staircase of 108 to 119. Above it on the wall was writing in chalk, “The Jews are the men that will not be blamed for nothing.” He searched the staircases and areas but found nothing else. He took the apron to Commercial-road Police-station. The apron was not where it was found when he passed the spot before at 2.20.

    By Mr. Crawford: He copied the writing on the wall into his pocket book, which he had not with him now. He might in copying have spelt the words differently to the spelling of them on the wall. He wold not admit that the writing on the wall read actually thus: “The Jews are not the men” and that in copying he had misplaced the negative.

    The Coroner directed the witness to fetch the copy book.

    David Halse, Detective-officer, City Police deposed that on Saturday, the 29th, he directed a number of officers in plain clothes to patrol the City. At about two minutes to two he was at the corner of Houndsditch, by Aldgate Church, in company with Detectives Outram and Marriott. They heard of a woman being found murdered in Mitre-square, and immediately ran there. He gave instructions to have the neighbourhood searched, and every man stopped and examined. He went by way of Middlesex-street into Wentworth-street where he stopped two men, who gave satisfactory accounts of themselves. He came through Goldstern-street on the spot where the apron was found at 2.20. He went back to Mitre-square and shortly afterwards heard that a piece of apron had been found in Goldstern-street. He went to the spot and saw some chalk writing on the black facia of the wall, and went away to see Inspector McWilliamson with a view of having it photographed. Directions were given for it to be photographed, but during the time, and before the messenger arrived, the Metropolitan police thinking that, being Sunday morning the words might cause a riot if seen by the Jews, or cause an outbreak against the Jews, had had the writing washed out. Inquiry was made at every tenement in the building, but no tidings were gained of anyone going in who might have been the murderer.

    Examined by Mr. Crawford: He took a copy of the writing. The exact words were: - “The Juwes are not the men that will be blamed for nothing.”

    Mr Crawford: Did you protest against this writing being rubbed out? – I did, sir, I asked that it should be allowed to remain until Major Smith had seen it.
    Mr Crawford said that was all the evidence he had to offer on behalf of the police. He remarked with regard to an observation by one of the jury, that it was strange the house where the apron and writing were found was not at once searched, that as soon as the discovery came within the congnizance of the City police a vigorous search was instituted. But that could only be done after two hours had elapsed since the discovery by the witness Long, a member of the Metropolitan Police.

    The witness Long having returned with his pocket book, was re-examined by Mr. Crawford, adhered to his former statement as to the position of the negative in the chalk writing. While on the spot he remembered, the inspector remarked, that Jews was spelt “JUEWES.” In his search of the staircases and areas he found no trace of blood or recent footmarks. Having searched the staircase he went to the station. Before going to the station he had heard of a murder having been committed in the City. He left 190 H in charge of the beat, telling him to keep observation to see whether anyone left or entered. He returned to the place at five, and the writing was not rubbed out. That was done at half past five.

    The Coroner proceeded to sum up, and directed the Jury to return an open verdict.

    The Jury found a verdict of wilful murder against some person or persons unknown.

    THE EAST-END HORRORS

    No Arrests – No Clues – Another False Confession by a Drunken Man

    No fresh arrests have been made in the Whitechapel district in connection with the recent murders. The police precautions for the surveillance of the neighbourhood are in no way relaxed, yet they are still without direct trace of the murderer. About 10 o’clock last night a middle-aged man of stout build walked into the Leman-street Police-station and accused himself of the murders. The man was obviously under the influence of drink; but it was thought desirable to detain him while inquiries were made at the address given. The police then found that his name was Geary, that he lived in the neighbourhood, and that it was impossible he could have committed the crimes of which he had accused himself. It was also ascertained that he had at one time been detained in a lunatic asylum. Under these circumstances it was considered inadvisable to detain him, and he was released shortly after 11 o’clock. At all the police stations in the eastern district the night was reported to have been a quite one, and from the deserted condition of the streets there is no doubt the state of panic into which the frequenters of the streets by night in the neighbourhood have been thrown by recent events continues undiminished.

    GAVE HIMSELF UP

    Another man gave himself up at Kilburn, and was taken to Leman-street Police-station, but after being questioned there by Inspector Abberline he was discharged.

    AN ARREST AT ELHAM

    A suspicious looking individual, who applied for admission to the casual ward for Elham Union, Kent, has been detained by the master, as he answered the description of the man wanted in connection with the Whitechapel murders, published in a daily paper. Blood was found on his trousers and shirt, the ends of his shirt had been torn off, and a price of sponge was found on him. He was dressed in a genteel style – black cloth coat, clock waistcoat, and hard felt hat. He has given three or four different names, and several contradictory accounts of himself. Superintendent Masted, of the county police, has communicated with the metropolitan police regarding the individual.

    Friday, October 12, 1888

    ON A FALSE TRAIL

    This morning, Police-sergeant Gibbery, 13 G, succeeded in finding the man Conway, with whom the woman Eddowes lived for several years. Conway was discovered in the Duke of York public-house, Clerkenwell-road, where he asked a man to sign some paper for him, he having, as he alleged, lost his pension papers. Struck by his appearance and name, the man gave information to the police, and Sergeant Gibbery at once took the man to the King’s Cross Police-station, whence he was afterwards conveyed to Bishopsgate Station. It being subsequently found that he was much younger than the woman’s husband must have been, the police did not think it necessary to send for Mrs. Phillips, the murdered woman’s sister, to see him, so the man went away.

    The detective staff in the Whitechapel district are engaged following up the various clues afforded by suspicious cases which are daily brought to the attention of the authorities; but in the majority of such instances the presumption of guilt is found to rest upon a very shadowy basis. The night patrols in the streets and courts within a wide radius of the scenes of the recent crimes are much strengthened by men from the various volunteer vigilance agencies at work, and this, coupled with the small number of women now to be seen in the streets during the night, should prove an effective bar to further tragedies. A report was current late last night that the police have good reason to suspect a man who is at present a patient in the East-end infirmary. He was admitted since the commission of the last murder, and, owing to his suspicious behaviour and other circumstances, the attention of the authorities was directed to him. Detectives are making inquiries relative to his actions before being admitted to the infirmary, and he is kept under constant and close surveillance.

    Saturday, October 13, 1888

    THE EAST-END MURDERS

    No Arrests During the Night – Extraordinary Precautions by Police and “Vigilants”

    Upon inquiry about four o’clock this morning at Leman-street, Commercial-street, Bethnal-green, and other police stations, it was learned from the police that no arrests in connection with the Whitechapel murders had been made in the district during the night. The force of police and detectives on duty in the district was strengthened somewhat last night, as the murders have generally been committed on the Friday and Saturday nights. The number of amateur policemen on the look-out for the murderer was also greater than usual; but up in hour named their vigilance had not been crowned with success. During the evening a number of domiciliary visits were made by the detectives, but no arrests were made.

    A PATHETIC INCIDENT

    A curious instance was afforded at the inquest on Thursday on the Mitre-square victim of how little the poor of London know of each other even when related by ties of blood. In the Coroner’s Court, when the woman’s blood-stained apron was produced, a respectable young woman in mourning commenced to cry bitterly. A sister of the deceased, asking who was weeping, was surprised to find it was her own dead sister’s child. She had grown up to be a young married woman without her aunt ever having known of her existence.


    Friday, October 19, 1888


    THE WHITECHAPEL TRAGEDIES

    Manufacture of Sensational News for Cash – The Latest Horror
    All statements with regard to the discoveries in connection with the Whitechapel murders should be received with great caution. It has come to our knowledge that certain parties who are ostensibly interested in the detection of the crimes at the East-end are receiving money from newspapers for the supply of sensational paragraphs. All that can be said with certainty as to the latest “horror” is that a portion of a human kidney has been submitted by the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee to the authorities. It was first taken to Mr Reed (Dr. Wiles) of Mile-end-road, who examined it microscopically and otherwise, and satisfied himself that it was part of a human kidney that had been kept for some time in spirits of wine. Mr Reed, who was seen this morning by an EVENING POST reporter, said that from considerations of size and weight he judged that it was part of a woman’s kidney. He took it to Dr. Oppenshaw, at the London Hospital, who confirmed this opinion. The statement that the kidney was “ginny” was, he declared, unfounded, and that there was nothing about it to indicate that it had belonged to an excessive drinker. He gave it as his opinion that the kidney might have been sent by a medical student or someone connected with post-mortem rooms, and that it did not necessarily have any connection with the murders.

    A COMPLETE FABRICATION

    The circumstantial story of the watching and arrest of a suspicious American in Bermondsey proves to be entirely without foundation in fact. The statement was that the attention of two men were called to the movements of a man in the neighbourhood of London Hospital; and that they watched him. Circumstantial details of the man’s movements were given, and they were of a sufficiently suspicious character. At length they lost him in the fog. They then gave information to the police, and a description of the man, with the result that he was arrested by a constable in Bermondsey. The police, however, say they have heard nothing of the matter at all.

    Saturday, October 20, 1888

    THE WHITECHAPEL HORRORS

    A Doctors (sic) says the Latest Story is a Student’s Freak

    The opinion appears to be gaining ground that the parcel received by Mr Lusk was sent as a hoax. Dr. Saunders, alluding to the report that a medical man declared the half kidney had belonged to a female, remarked to a reporter who interviewed him:- “It is a pity more people have not the courage to say they don’t know. You may take it that there is no difference whatever between the male and female kidney. As for those in animals, they are similar. The cortical substance is the same and the structure differs in shape. I think it would be quite possible to mistake it for a pig's. You may take it that the right kidney of the woman Eddowes was perfectly normal in its structure and healthy, and, by parity of reasoning, you would not get much disease in the left. The liver was healthy, and gave no indications that the woman drank. Taking the discovery of the half of the kidney, and supposing it to be human, my opinion is that it was a student's antic. It is quite possible for any student to obtain a kidney for the purpose."

    SUPPOSED SENDER OF THE PACKET

    A statement, which it is said may have some bearing upon the sending of the packet to Mr. Lusk, has been made by Mrs. Emily Marsh, whose father carries on business in the leather trade at 218, Jubilee-street, Mile-end-road. In Mr. Marsh's absence Miss Marsh was in the front shop, shortly after one o'clock on Monday last, when a stranger, dressed in clerical costume, entered, and, referring to the reward bill in the window, asked for the address of Mr. Lusk, described therein as the president of the Vigilance Committee. Miss Marsh at once referred the man to Mr. J. Aarons, the treasurer of the committee, who resides at the corner of Jubilee-street and Mile-end-road, a distance of about 30 yards. The man, however, said he did not want to go there, and Miss Marsh therefore produced a newspaper in which Mr. Lusk's address was given as Alderney-road, Globe-road, no number being mentioned. She requested the stranger to read the address, but he declined, saying, "Read it out," and proceeded to write something in his pocket-book, keeping his head down meanwhile. He subsequently left the shop, after thanking the young lady for the information, but not before Miss Marsh, alarmed by the man's appearance, had sent the shop boy, John Cormack, to see that all was right. This lad, as well as Miss Marsh, gave a full description of the man, while Mr. Marsh, who happened to come along at the time, also encountered him on the pavement outside. The stranger is described as a man of some 45 years of age, fully six feet in height, and slimly built. He wore a soft felt black hat, drawn over his forehead, a stand-up collar, and a very long black single-breasted overcoat, with a Prussian or clerical collar partly turned up. His face was of a sallow type, and he had a dark beard and moustache. The man spoke with what was taken to be an Irish accent. No importance was attached to the incident until Miss Marsh read of the receipt by Mr. Lusk of a strange parcel, and then it occurred to her that the stranger might be the person who had despatched it. His inquiry was made at one o'clock on Monday afternoon, and Mr. Lusk received the package at eight p.m. the next day. The address on the package, curiously enough, gives no number in Alderney-road, a piece of information which Miss Marsh could not supply. It appears that on leaving the shop the man went right by Mr. Aaron's house, but did not call.
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